Closed Head Injuries

Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)
Also Known As:
Head Injuries, Closed; Head Injury, Blunt; Head Injury, Nonpenetrating; Injuries, Closed Head; Blunt Head Injuries; Blunt Head Injury; Closed Head Injury; Closed Head Trauma; Closed Head Traumas; Head Injuries, Blunt; Head Injury, Closed; Head Traumas, Closed; Nonpenetrating Head Injuries; Nonpenetrating Head Injury; Trauma, Closed Head; Traumas, Closed Head; Head Injuries, Nonpenetrating; Head Trauma, Closed
Networked: 427 relevant articles (36 outcomes, 85 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Brain Edema (Cerebral Edema)
2. Memory Disorders (Memory Loss)
3. Wounds and Injuries (Trauma)
4. Hemorrhage
5. Seizures (Seizure)


1. Shohami, Esther: 18 articles (12/2014 - 08/2002)
2. Shohami, E: 14 articles (04/2007 - 01/2000)
3. Shapira, Yoram: 8 articles (08/2010 - 08/2002)
4. Stahel, Philip F: 6 articles (11/2014 - 08/2002)
5. Laskowitz, Daniel T: 6 articles (08/2013 - 01/2002)
6. Artru, Alan A: 6 articles (07/2009 - 08/2002)
7. Wang, Haichen: 5 articles (08/2013 - 03/2005)
8. Alexandrovich, Alexander: 5 articles (04/2008 - 06/2003)
9. Lynch, John R: 5 articles (04/2007 - 01/2002)
10. Stahel, P F: 5 articles (03/2007 - 02/2000)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Closed Head Injuries:
1. Hetastarch (Pentastarch)FDA Link
2. Cytidine Diphosphate Choline (Citicoline)IBA
3. TaurineFDA Link
4. N-Methylaspartate (NMDA)IBA
5. AcetylcholinesteraseIBA
6. Complement System Proteins (Complement)IBA
7. Phenytoin (Dilantin)FDA LinkGeneric
8. N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors (NMDA Receptors)IBA
9. ErythropoietinFDA Link
10. IsofluraneFDA LinkGeneric

Therapies and Procedures

1. Critical Care
07/01/2001 - "Efficacy of prehospital critical care teams for severe blunt head injury in the Australian setting."
09/01/2008 - "1. To determine the awareness of the literature concerning therapeutic manoeuvres in severe closed head injury (CHI) among Canadian critical care clinicians and neurosurgeons, 2. To identify factors that affect utilization of these manoeuvres, and 3. To compare reported appropriateness and frequency of use with #1 and #2. The study design was a systematic scenario-based survey of all neurosurgeons and critical care physicians treating patients with severe CHI in Canada. "
08/01/2007 - "To determine: 1. the degrees of consensus and disagreement among Canadian critical care clinicians regarding the appropriateness (benefit exceeding risk) of common therapeutic manoeuvres in patients with severe closed head injury (CHI), and 2. the frequency with which clinicians employed these manoeuvres. "
01/01/2006 - "This is a subgroup analysis of a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial involving sixty-seven critically ill patients from the Transfusion Requirements in the Critical Care trial who sustained a closed head injury. "
01/01/2009 - "We prospectively studied 19 patients with closed head injuries who were admitted to the Critical Care and Trauma Services at our medical center and who fulfilled the following criteria: did not recover to a Glasgow Coma Scale score greater than 8 after impact, without fixed dilated pupils, and with initial computed tomography findings compatible with DAI. "
2. Hemodilution
3. Tracheostomy
4. Craniotomy
5. Decompressive Craniectomy