Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (Tropical Spastic Paraplegia)

A subacute paralytic myeloneuropathy occurring endemically in tropical areas such as the Caribbean, Colombia, India, and Africa, as well as in the southwestern region of Japan; associated with infection by HUMAN T-CELL LEUKEMIA VIRUS I. Clinical manifestations include a slowly progressive spastic weakness of the legs, increased reflexes, Babinski signs, incontinence, and loss of vibratory and position sensation. On pathologic examination inflammatory, demyelination, and necrotic lesions may be found in the spinal cord. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1239)
Also Known As:
Tropical Spastic Paraplegia; Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic; HTLV I Associated Myelopathies; HTLV-I-Associated Myelopathy-Tropical Spastic Paraparesis; Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Associated Myelopathy; Myelopathies, HTLV I Associated; Myelopathy, Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Associated; Paraplegia, Tropical Spastic; HTLV I Associated Myelopathy; HTLV I Associated Myelopathy Tropical Spastic Paraparesis; HTLV-I-Associated Myelopathies; Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Associated Myelopathy; Myelopathies, HTLV-I-Associated; Myelopathy, HTLV-I-Associated; Myelopathy, Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Associated; Parapareses, Tropical Spastic; Paraplegias, Tropical Spastic; Spastic Parapareses, Tropical; Spastic Paraparesis, Tropical; Spastic Paraplegia, Tropical; Spastic Paraplegias, Tropical; Tropical Spastic Parapareses; Tropical Spastic Paraplegias; HTLV-I-Associated Myelopathy
Networked: 353 relevant articles (14 outcomes, 25 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Spinal Cord Diseases
2. Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (Tropical Spastic Paraplegia)
3. T-Cell Leukemia (Leukemia, T Cell)
4. Lymphoma (Lymphomas)
5. Cerebral Infarction


1. Izumo, Shuji: 15 articles (01/2013 - 01/2002)
2. Osame, Mitsuhiro: 14 articles (04/2008 - 01/2002)
3. Saito, Mineki: 13 articles (01/2013 - 01/2004)
4. Usuku, Koichiro: 10 articles (03/2008 - 01/2004)
5. Bangham, Charles R M: 9 articles (12/2013 - 05/2002)
6. Arimura, Kimiyoshi: 9 articles (01/2009 - 04/2004)
7. Nakamura, Tatsufumi: 8 articles (06/2014 - 04/2002)
8. Nishiura, Yoshihiro: 8 articles (06/2014 - 04/2002)
9. Tanaka, Yuetsu: 7 articles (04/2014 - 05/2002)
10. Casseb, Jorge: 6 articles (01/2013 - 07/2006)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Tropical Spastic Paraparesis:
1. Interferon-alpha (Interferon Alfa)FDA Link
2. InterferonsIBA
01/01/2004 - "To analyze the mechanism by which interferon (IFN)-alpha is effective against human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), we investigated the T cell phenotype and HTLV-I provirus load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 25 patients with HAM/TSP that were obtained before and after administration of IFN-alpha. "
01/10/2002 - "[Chronic hepatitis C with HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM) treated with interferon]."
06/01/2014 - "The main therapeutic strategy against human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) characterized by lower extremity motor dysfunction is immunomodulatory treatment, with drugs such as corticosteroid hormone and interferon-α, at present. "
11/01/2011 - "Short communication an interferon-γ ELISPOT assay with two cytotoxic T cell epitopes derived from HTLV-1 tax region 161-233 discriminates HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients from asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers in a Peruvian population."
02/01/2005 - "We analyzed the relationship between the expression of interferon (IFN)-gamma and HTLV-I p19 antigen and activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in two HTLV-I-infected T cell lines derived from two patients (HCT-1 and HCT-4) with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and three HTLV-I-infected T cell lines derived from three patients with adult T cell leukemia (ATL). "
3. Prednisolone (Predate)FDA LinkGeneric
4. Messenger RNA (mRNA)IBA
12/01/2004 - "Increased mRNA expression of Th1-cytokine signaling molecules in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis."
03/01/1995 - "To investigate the expression of inflammatory cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (HAM). "
05/01/1994 - "In order to evaluate the expression of HTLV-1 and its effects in the lung, we examined the expression of mRNA for the HTLV-1 tax/rex gene in fresh bronchoalveolar lavage cells (BALC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 23 seropositive individuals, including six patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), by use of an improved method of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). "
12/01/2002 - "This review focuses on current approaches to understanding the immunopathogenesis of human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) based on newly developed molecular and immunologic techniques that have been adapted to studies of HTLV-I proviral load, HTLV-I mRNA, and HTLV-I tax-specific CD8 T cells. "
01/01/2009 - "We quantified the HBZ and tax mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood from 56 HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients, 10 ATL patients, 38 healthy asymptomatic carriers (HCs) and 20 normal uninfected controls, as well as human leukemic T-cell lines and HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, and the data were correlated with clinical parameters. "
5. Pentoxifylline (Trental)FDA LinkGeneric
6. prosultiamineIBA
7. Valproic Acid (Valproate, Semisodium)FDA LinkGeneric
8. Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)FDA LinkGeneric
9. Danazol (Azol)FDA LinkGeneric
10. 14-3-3 Proteins (14-3-3 Protein)IBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Plasmapheresis
2. Oral Administration
3. Blood Transfusion (Blood Transfusions)
4. Transplants (Transplant)
5. Kidney Transplantation