Wernicke Encephalopathy (Wernicke's Encephalopathy)

An acute neurological disorder characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and disturbances of mental activity or consciousness. Eye movement abnormalities include nystagmus, external rectus palsies, and reduced conjugate gaze. THIAMINE DEFICIENCY and chronic ALCOHOLISM are associated conditions. Pathologic features include periventricular petechial hemorrhages and neuropil breakdown in the diencephalon and brainstem. Chronic thiamine deficiency may lead to KORSAKOFF SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1139-42; Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp452-3)
Also Known As:
Wernicke's Encephalopathy; Wernicke Syndrome; Encephalopathy, Gayet-Wernicke; Encephalopathy, Wernicke's; Gayet-Wernicke Encephalopathy; Wernicke Disease; Wernicke Polioencephalitis, Superior Hemorrhagic; Wernicke Superior Hemorrhagic Polioencephalitis; Wernicke's Disease; Wernicke's Polioencephalitis, Superior Hemorrhagic; Wernicke's Superior Hemorrhagic Polioencephalitis; Wernicke's Syndrome; Cerebral Beriberi; Encephalopathies, Wernicke; Encephalopathy, Gayet Wernicke; Encephalopathy, Wernickes; Gayet Wernicke Encephalopathy; Wernicke Encephalopathies; Beriberi, Cerebral; Encephalopathy, Wernicke
Networked: 387 relevant articles (10 outcomes, 14 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Hyperemesis Gravidarum
2. Vomiting
3. Beriberi
4. Neurologic Manifestations (Neurological Manifestations)
5. Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium (Delirium Tremens)


1. Hazell, Alan S: 7 articles (06/2014 - 08/2003)
2. Butterworth, Roger F: 4 articles (12/2010 - 03/2008)
3. Sullivan, Edith V: 3 articles (11/2014 - 05/2007)
4. Zahr, Natalie M: 3 articles (11/2014 - 02/2011)
5. Pfefferbaum, Adolf: 3 articles (11/2014 - 05/2007)
6. Wang, Dongmei: 3 articles (06/2014 - 01/2010)
7. Desjardins, Paul: 3 articles (12/2010 - 06/2008)
8. Zuccoli, Giulio: 3 articles (06/2010 - 04/2008)
9. Zuccoli, G: 3 articles (01/2009 - 08/2007)
10. Han, Jung Woo: 2 articles (11/2014 - 09/2012)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Wernicke Encephalopathy:
1. Thiamine (Aneurin)FDA Link
2. TransketolaseIBA
3. VitaminsIBA
4. Glucose (Dextrose)FDA LinkGeneric
5. PyrithiamineIBA
6. Thiamine PyrophosphateIBA
07/01/2002 - "Both patients were diagnosed with Wernicke's encephalopathy on clinical ground since there were no laboratory facilities to measure red cell transketolase and thiamine pyrophosphate levels. "
08/01/1995 - "In the present study, thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes were measured using standard spectrophotometric techniques in homogenates of brain tissue obtained at autopsy from eight alcoholic patients, all of whom died in hepatic coma without clinical or neuropathological evidence of Wernicke's encephalopathy and six nonalcoholic, age-matched controls, matched for autopsy delay time and free, at the time of death, from gross malnutrition or other neurological or psychiatric disorders. "
07/01/1999 - "Recent findings on the effects of alcohol on thiamine absorption and storage and on thiamine phosphorylation to the enzyme co-factor form (thiamine diphosphate) are discussed with regard to the postulated "biochemical lesion" of Wernicke encephalopathy. "
01/01/1995 - "Regional alterations of thiamine phosphate esters and of thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes in relation to function in experimental Wernicke's encephalopathy."
11/01/1986 - "We studied a thiamine-dependent enzyme, transketolase, from fibroblasts of a diabetic patient who developed Wernicke's encephalopathy when treated with tolazamide, in order to delineate if this patient also had transketolase abnormality [high Km for thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)], as previously reported in postalcoholic Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. "
7. EnzymesIBA
8. Disulfiram (Antabuse)FDA Link
9. Janus Kinase 2IBA
10. Vitamin B Complex (B Vitamins)IBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Parenteral Nutrition
2. Oral Administration
3. Institutionalization (Institutionalized Persons)
4. Bone Marrow Transplantation (Transplantation, Bone Marrow)
5. Bariatric Surgery