Infantile Spasms (West Syndrome)

An epileptic syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and arrest of psychomotor development at seizure onset. The majority present between 3-12 months of age, with spasms consisting of combinations of brief flexor or extensor movements of the head, trunk, and limbs. The condition is divided into two forms: cryptogenic (idiopathic) and symptomatic (secondary to a known disease process such as intrauterine infections; nervous system abnormalities; BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC, INBORN; prematurity; perinatal asphyxia; TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS; etc.). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp744-8)
Also Known As:
West Syndrome; Lightning Attack; Infantile Spasm; Spasmus Nutans; Spasms, Infantile; Cryptogenic West Syndrome; Lightning Attacks; Salaam Attacks; Symptomatic West Syndrome; Attack, Lightning; Attacks, Lightning; Attacks, Salaam; Cryptogenic Infantile Spasm; Hypsarrhythmias; Infantile Spasm, Cryptogenic; Infantile Spasm, Symptomatic; Infantile Spasms, Cryptogenic; Infantile Spasms, Symptomatic; Jackknife Seizure; Nodding Spasms; Seizure, Jackknife; Seizures, Jackknife; Seizures, Salaam; Spasm, Cryptogenic Infantile; Spasm, Nodding; Spasm, Symptomatic Infantile; Spasms, Cryptogenic Infantile; Spasms, Nodding; Spasms, Symptomatic Infantile; Symptomatic Infantile Spasm; Syndrome, Cryptogenic West; Syndrome, Symptomatic West; Syndrome, West; West Syndrome, Cryptogenic; West Syndrome, Symptomatic; Cryptogenic Infantile Spasms; Hypsarrhythmia; Jackknife Seizures; Nodding Spasm; Salaam Seizures; Symptomatic Infantile Spasms
Networked: 1477 relevant articles (247 outcomes, 227 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Seizures (Absence Seizure)
2. Infantile Spasms (West Syndrome)
3. Tuberous Sclerosis (Bourneville's Disease)
4. Spasm (Spasms)
5. Epilepsy (Aura)


1. Zou, Li-Ping: 20 articles (06/2022 - 11/2006)
2. Hussain, Shaun A: 20 articles (01/2022 - 01/2014)
3. Mytinger, John R: 19 articles (01/2022 - 08/2010)
4. Yang, Guang: 14 articles (06/2022 - 02/2011)
5. Galanopoulou, Aristea S: 14 articles (01/2021 - 07/2010)
6. Kossoff, Eric H: 13 articles (10/2021 - 05/2002)
7. Sankar, Raman: 12 articles (11/2020 - 11/2010)
8. Snead, O Carter: 12 articles (11/2020 - 01/2002)
9. Thiele, Elizabeth A: 12 articles (08/2016 - 07/2005)
10. Wang, Jing: 11 articles (06/2022 - 02/2011)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Infantile Spasms:
1. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)FDA Link
2. VigabatrinFDA Link
3. Topiramate (Topamax)FDA LinkGeneric
4. Pharmaceutical PreparationsIBA
5. Zonisamide (Zonegran)FDA LinkGeneric
6. Anticonvulsants (Antiepileptic Drugs)IBA
7. Prednisolone (Predate)FDA LinkGeneric
8. Valproic Acid (Depakote)FDA LinkGeneric
9. SteroidsIBA
10. Lamotrigine (Lamictal)FDA LinkGeneric

Therapies and Procedures

1. Therapeutics
2. Ketogenic Diet
3. Duration of Therapy
4. Aftercare (After-Treatment)
5. Injections