Retinoblastoma (Glioblastoma, Retinal)

A malignant tumor arising from the nuclear layer of the retina that is the most common primary tumor of the eye in children. The tumor tends to occur in early childhood or infancy and may be present at birth. The majority are sporadic, but the condition may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Histologic features include dense cellularity, small round polygonal cells, and areas of calcification and necrosis. An abnormal pupil reflex (leukokoria); NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; STRABISMUS; and visual loss represent common clinical characteristics of this condition. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2104)
Also Known As:
Glioblastoma, Retinal; Glioma, Retinal; Neuroblastoma, Retinal; Eye Cancer, Retinoblastoma; Familial Retinoblastoma; Hereditary Retinoblastoma; Sporadic Retinoblastoma; Cancer, Retinoblastoma Eye; Cancers, Retinoblastoma Eye; Eye Cancers, Retinoblastoma; Familial Retinoblastomas; Glioblastomas, Retinal; Gliomas, Retinal; Hereditary Retinoblastomas; Neuroblastomas, Retinal; Retinal Glioblastoma; Retinal Glioblastomas; Retinal Glioma; Retinal Gliomas; Retinal Neuroblastoma; Retinal Neuroblastomas; Retinoblastoma Eye Cancer; Retinoblastoma Eye Cancers; Retinoblastoma, Familial; Retinoblastoma, Hereditary; Retinoblastoma, Sporadic; Retinoblastomas; Retinoblastomas, Familial; Retinoblastomas, Hereditary; Retinoblastomas, Sporadic; Sporadic Retinoblastomas
Networked: 7636 relevant articles (305 outcomes, 782 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Neoplasms (Cancer)
2. Neuroblastoma
3. Neoplasm Metastasis (Metastasis)
4. Melanoma (Melanoma, Malignant)
5. Retinal Neoplasms


1. Shields, Carol L: 132 articles (05/2022 - 04/2002)
2. Abramson, David H: 131 articles (11/2022 - 01/2002)
3. Shields, Jerry A: 69 articles (02/2022 - 04/2002)
4. Krishnakumar, Subramanian: 68 articles (08/2022 - 03/2004)
5. Francis, Jasmine H: 59 articles (05/2022 - 01/2012)
6. Gallie, Brenda L: 53 articles (04/2022 - 02/2002)
7. Dunkel, Ira J: 51 articles (11/2022 - 10/2003)
8. Murray, Timothy G: 47 articles (01/2020 - 03/2002)
9. Brodie, Scott E: 46 articles (01/2021 - 08/2008)
10. Khetan, Vikas: 45 articles (08/2022 - 09/2004)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Retinoblastoma:
1. Melphalan (Alkeran)FDA LinkGeneric
2. Carboplatin (JM8)FDA LinkGeneric
3. Topotecan (Hycamtin)FDA LinkGeneric
4. Vincristine (Oncovin)FDA LinkGeneric
5. Pharmaceutical PreparationsIBA
6. Proteins (Proteins, Gene)FDA Link
7. Etoposide (VP 16)FDA LinkGeneric
8. Retinoblastoma ProteinIBA
9. Cyclin D1IBA
10. Tumor Suppressor Proteins (Proteins, Tumor Suppressor)IBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
2. Therapeutics
3. Radiotherapy
4. Cryotherapy (Therapy, Cold)
5. Brachytherapy