Pathologic Nystagmus

Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)
Also Known As:
Nystagmus, Pathologic; Conjugate Nystagmus; Dissociated Nystagmus; Fatigable Positional Nystagmus; Multidirectional Nystagmus; Non-Fatigable Positional Nystagmus; Permanent Nystagmus; Rebound Nystagmus; Retraction Nystagmus; Rotational Nystagmus; Spontaneous Ocular Nystagmus; Symptomatic Nystagmus; Temporary Nystagmus; Unidirectional Nystagmus; Alternating Nystagmus, Periodic; Non Fatigable Positional Nystagmus; Nystagmus, Conjugate; Nystagmus, Convergence; Nystagmus, Dissociated; Nystagmus, Fatigable Positional; Nystagmus, Horizontal; Nystagmus, Jerk; Nystagmus, Multidirectional; Nystagmus, Non-Fatigable Positional; Nystagmus, Pendular; Nystagmus, Periodic Alternating; Nystagmus, Permanent; Nystagmus, Rebound; Nystagmus, Retraction; Nystagmus, Rotary; Nystagmus, Rotational; Nystagmus, See-Saw; Nystagmus, Spontaneous Ocular; Nystagmus, Symptomatic; Nystagmus, Temporary; Nystagmus, Unidirectional; Nystagmus, Vertical; Ocular Nystagmus, Spontaneous; Positional Nystagmus, Fatigable; Positional Nystagmus, Non-Fatigable; See Saw Nystagmus; Convergence Nystagmus; Horizontal Nystagmus; Jerk Nystagmus; Pendular Nystagmus; Periodic Alternating Nystagmus; Rotary Nystagmus; See-Saw Nystagmus; Vertical Nystagmus
Networked: 156 relevant articles (14 outcomes, 11 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Pathologic Nystagmus
2. Multiple Sclerosis
3. Tremor (Tremors)
4. Refractive Errors (Refractive Error)
5. Retinal Dystrophies


1. Leigh, R John: 6 articles (02/2012 - 04/2002)
2. Brandt, Thomas: 5 articles (07/2013 - 02/2006)
3. Strupp, Michael: 4 articles (07/2013 - 02/2006)
4. Thurtell, Matthew J: 3 articles (02/2012 - 12/2010)
5. Straube, Andreas: 3 articles (03/2010 - 02/2005)
6. Shaikh, Aasef G: 2 articles (07/2013 - 07/2011)
7. Gottlob, Irene: 2 articles (03/2009 - 11/2002)
8. Liu, Jun-xiu: 2 articles (06/2008 - 01/2007)
9. Ma, Fu-rong: 2 articles (06/2008 - 01/2007)
10. Dell'Osso, L F: 2 articles (01/2008 - 07/2006)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Pathologic Nystagmus:
1. gabapentin (Neurontin)FDA LinkGeneric
2. BaclofenFDA LinkGeneric
3. Memantine (Namenda)FDA Link
4. 4-Aminopyridine (4 Aminopyridine)IBA
02/01/2011 - "Controlled studies found gabapentin and memantine to be effective in acquired pendular nystagmus and early-onset idiopathic nystagmus, and an efficacy of 4-aminopyridine in downbeat nystagmus."
02/01/2015 - "PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT: Depending on the pathophysiology of different types of nystagmus, several drugs were effective in clinical application (off-label use): (i) gabapentin (non-selective GABAergic and anti-glutamatergic effect): up to 2400 mg/d in infantile nystagmus, acquired pendular nystagmus and oculopalatal tremor, (ii) nemantine (anti-glutamatergic effect): dosage up to 40 mg/d in infantile nystagmus, also in acquired pendular nystagmus and oculopalatal tremor, (iii) baclofen (GABA-B-receptor agonist): 3 × 5-10 mg/d in periodic alternating nystagmus and in upbeat nystagmus, (iv) 4-aminopyridine (non-selective blocker of voltage-gated potassium channels): 3 × 5 mg/d or 1-2 × 10 mg Fampridin in downbeat nystagmus and upbeat nystagmus, (v) acetazolamide (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor): in hereditary episodic ataxia type 2. OPTICAL DEVICES: (i) Contact lenses are used in infantile nystagmus in order to overcome negative effects of eye glasses in abnormal head posture, lateral gaze, and higher refractive errors, (ii) spectacle prisms are useful to induce an artificial exophoria (base-out prisms) or to shift an excentric null zone (base in direction of head posture) of infantile nystagmus with abnormal head posture, (iii) low vision aids may be necessary and should be prescribed according to magnification requirements."
5. Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum Toxin)IBA
6. GABA-B Receptor AgonistsIBA
7. Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels (Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel)IBA
8. Type A Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum A Toxin)FDA Link
9. Trimeprazine (Alimemazine)IBA
10. EnzymesIBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Contact Lenses
2. Off-Label Use
3. Optical Devices
4. Tenotomy
5. Sutures (Suture)