Periventricular Leukomalacia (Neonatal Cerebral Leukomalacia)

Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
Also Known As:
Neonatal Cerebral Leukomalacia; Leukomalacia, Periventricular; Leucomalacia, Periventricular; Cerebral Leukomalacia, Neonatal; Cerebral Leukomalacias, Neonatal; Cystic Periventricular Leukomalacias; Encephalomalacias, Periventricular; Leucomalacias, Periventricular; Leukomalacia, Cystic Periventricular; Leukomalacia, Neonatal Cerebral; Leukomalacias, Cystic Periventricular; Leukomalacias, Neonatal Cerebral; Leukomalacias, Periventricular; Neonatal Cerebral Leukomalacias; Periventricular Encephalomalacia; Periventricular Encephalomalacias; Periventricular Leucomalacia; Periventricular Leucomalacias; Periventricular Leukomalacia, Cystic; Periventricular Leukomalacias; Periventricular Leukomalacias, Cystic; Cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia; Encephalomalacia, Periventricular
Networked: 391 relevant articles (10 outcomes, 41 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Hemorrhage
2. Lung Diseases (Lung Disease)
3. Retinopathy of Prematurity (Retrolental Fibroplasia)
4. Sepsis (Septicemia)
5. Chorioamnionitis


1. Volpe, Joseph J: 10 articles (12/2013 - 05/2002)
2. Jensen, Frances E: 7 articles (04/2015 - 05/2004)
3. Chen, Hui-Jin: 6 articles (01/2013 - 06/2008)
4. Qian, Long-Hua: 6 articles (01/2013 - 06/2008)
5. Rosenberg, Paul A: 5 articles (03/2014 - 05/2004)
6. Ehrenkranz, Richard A: 5 articles (12/2011 - 07/2002)
7. Ohlsson, A: 5 articles (01/2008 - 01/2000)
8. Vohr, Betty R: 4 articles (12/2011 - 04/2003)
9. Stoll, Barbara J: 4 articles (12/2011 - 07/2002)
10. Fanaroff, Avroy A: 4 articles (12/2011 - 07/2002)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Periventricular Leukomalacia:
2. ErythropoietinFDA Link
3. Nitric Oxide (Nitrogen Monoxide)FDA Link
4. SteroidsIBA
5. GlucocorticoidsIBA
6. alpha- Amino- 3- hydroxy- 5- methyl- 4- isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA)IBA
7. Memantine (Namenda)FDA Link
8. Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF)IBA
9. Kainic Acid Receptors (Kainate Receptor)IBA
10. Uridine Diphosphate Glucose (UDP Glucose)IBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Neonatal Intensive Care
2. Aftercare (After-Treatment)
3. Artificial Respiration (Mechanical Ventilation)
4. Ligation
02/01/2008 - "Corresponding figures for other significant risk factors were as follows: severe grades of intraventricular haemorrhage (2.7; 1.2-5.9), presence of periventricular leukomalacia (4.5; 2.1-9.3), patent ductus arteriosus requiring ligation (2.8; 1.3-6.1), severe grades of retinopathy of prematurity (2.4; 1.0-5.6), and severe grades of necrotising enterocolitis (3.2; 1.6-6.3). "
03/01/2005 - "No statistically significant differences were found in mortality, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, surgical ligation, sepsis, retinopathy of prematurity, periventricular leukomalacia, length of hospital stay, gastrointestinal bleeding, re-opening of PDA, back-up treatment, surfactant therapy, or days on a ventilator. "
01/01/2014 - "We compared outcomes of both agents for in-hospital mortality, need for surgical ligation, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, renal failure, and persistent pulmonary hypertension. "
02/01/2004 - "Significant independent predictors of neonatal seizures were decreasing gestational age, male gender, respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary air leak (pneumothorax and pulmonary interstitial emphysema), intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, patent ductus arteriosus, surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, and surgical treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis. "
06/01/2005 - "Risk factors for CP on matched analyses included patent ductus arteriosus requiring surgical ligation, peri-intraventricular haemorrhage, moderate to severe ventricular dilatation, periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and need for home oxygen. "
5. Analgesia