Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)
Also Known As:
Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal; JC Polyomavirus Encephalopathy; Encephalopathies, JC Polyomavirus; Encephalopathy, JC Polyomavirus; JC Polyomavirus Encephalitis; Leukoencephalopathies, Progressive Multifocal; Multifocal Leukoencephalopathies, Progressive; Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive; Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathies; Encephalitis, JC Polyomavirus
Networked: 864 relevant articles (54 outcomes, 54 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
2. Multiple Sclerosis
3. Crohn Disease (Crohn's Disease)
4. Infection
5. Opportunistic Infections (Opportunistic Infection)


1. Koralnik, Igor J: 22 articles (10/2015 - 12/2002)
2. Gold, Ralf: 16 articles (07/2015 - 12/2008)
3. Kieseier, Bernd C: 14 articles (07/2015 - 02/2007)
4. Major, Eugene O: 14 articles (01/2015 - 11/2004)
5. Berger, Joseph R: 12 articles (12/2015 - 07/2005)
6. Cinque, Paola: 11 articles (12/2014 - 01/2003)
7. Stüve, Olaf: 11 articles (09/2014 - 10/2006)
8. Clifford, David B: 10 articles (12/2015 - 01/2003)
9. Wattjes, Mike P: 10 articles (10/2015 - 10/2013)
10. Hartung, Hans-Peter: 10 articles (07/2015 - 02/2007)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy:
1. natalizumab (Tysabri)FDA Link
2. Mefloquine (Lariam)FDA LinkGeneric
3. cidofovir (Vistide)FDA Link
4. AntibodiesIBA
5. N-acetyltalosaminuronic acid (NAT)IBA
6. nitazoxanide (NTZ)FDA Link
03/01/2014 - "Despite evidence to support its use as first-line therapy, risk of NTZ-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has largely contributed to it being relegated to a second-line position. "
11/01/2007 - "In February 2005, the production of NTZ was suspended by Producer Firms on account of the occurrence of two serious adverse events: two patients who had been taking NTZ manifested a progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; the patients showed progressive neurologic deterioration, initially believed to be a worsening of the pre-existing condition of MS. In March 2006, the Advisory Panel of the Food and Drug Administration voted unanimously in favor of the return of NTZ on the market with the majority of the panel also recommending that NTZ be considered the first choice of treatment in MS. NTZ should only be administered to patients who are not taking other medicines for MS and only in highly specialized centers. "
01/01/2015 - "This review provides an update on the efficacy of an inhibition of relapses, adverse effects including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, treatment after NTZ discontinuation, and body weight based treatment. "
01/01/2015 - "A correlation between CD62LCD4+ T cells low expression and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) development has been suggested in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with NTZ. "
11/01/2007 - "We must conclude that 1) in remittent MS, between one attack and another (successive re-infection of bordetella pertussis) there are no CICs that can precipitate into the central nervous system, and thus the treatment with NTZ is useless and superfluous; 2) in chronic-progressive MS, the final result of the treatment with NTZ will be that of transforming MS into lateral amyotrophic sclerosis or progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; 3) in progressive MS, however, NTZ can be of considerable use in the first 2 months of antibiotic treatment to prevent the formation of new patches or the re-activation of previous ones. "
7. Risperidone (Risperdal Consta)FDA LinkGeneric
8. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)IBA
9. rituximab (Mabthera)FDA Link
10. Cytarabine (Cytosar-U)FDA LinkGeneric

Therapies and Procedures

1. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)
2. Therapeutics
3. Aftercare (After-Treatment)
4. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation)
5. Radiotherapy