Hallucinations (Hallucination)

Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
Also Known As:
Hallucination; Visual Hallucinations; Auditory Hallucinations; Hallucination, Visual; Somatic Hallucinations; Visual Hallucination; Hallucination of Body Sensation; Hallucinations, Auditory; Hallucinations, Dissociative; Hallucinations, Elementary; Hallucinations, Formed, of People; Hallucinations, Gustatory; Hallucinations, Hypnagogic; Hallucinations, Hypnapompic; Hallucinations, Internal Body Sensation; Hallucinations, Kinesthetic; Hallucinations, Mood Congruent; Hallucinations, Mood Incongruent; Hallucinations, Olfactory; Hallucinations, Organic; Hallucinations, Reflex; Hallucinations, Sensory; Hallucinations, Somatic; Hallucinations, Tactile; Hallucinations, Verbal Auditory; Hallucinations, Visual; Hallucinations, Visual, Formed; Hallucinations, Visual, Unformed; Auditory Hallucination; Auditory Hallucination, Verbal; Auditory Hallucinations, Verbal; Body Sensation Hallucination; Body Sensation Hallucinations; Dissociative Hallucination; Dissociative Hallucinations; Elementary Hallucination; Elementary Hallucinations; Gustatory Hallucination; Gustatory Hallucinations; Hallucination, Auditory; Hallucination, Dissociative; Hallucination, Elementary; Hallucination, Gustatory; Hallucination, Hypnagogic; Hallucination, Hypnapompic; Hallucination, Kinesthetic; Hallucination, Mood Congruent; Hallucination, Mood Incongruent; Hallucination, Olfactory; Hallucination, Organic; Hallucination, Reflex; Hallucination, Sensory; Hallucination, Somatic; Hallucination, Tactile; Hallucination, Verbal Auditory; Hypnagogic Hallucination; Hypnagogic Hallucinations; Hypnapompic Hallucination; Hypnapompic Hallucinations; Kinesthetic Hallucination; Kinesthetic Hallucinations; Mood Congruent Hallucination; Mood Congruent Hallucinations; Mood Incongruent Hallucination; Mood Incongruent Hallucinations; Olfactory Hallucination; Olfactory Hallucinations; Organic Hallucination; Organic Hallucinations; Reflex Hallucination; Reflex Hallucinations; Sensory Hallucination; Sensory Hallucinations; Somatic Hallucination; Tactile Hallucination; Tactile Hallucinations; Verbal Auditory Hallucination; Verbal Auditory Hallucinations
Networked: 3832 relevant articles (275 outcomes, 324 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Schizophrenia (Dementia Praecox)
2. Psychotic Disorders (Schizoaffective Disorder)
3. Parkinson Disease (Parkinson's Disease)
4. Dementia (Dementias)
5. Hallucinations (Hallucination)


1. Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan: 19 articles (01/2021 - 10/2007)
2. Jardri, Renaud: 17 articles (01/2022 - 01/2009)
3. Xu, Yong: 16 articles (01/2022 - 01/2019)
4. Zhuo, Chuanjun: 15 articles (09/2021 - 01/2019)
5. Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C: 15 articles (01/2021 - 05/2012)
6. Shivakumar, Venkataram: 14 articles (10/2018 - 09/2013)
7. Lin, Xiaodong: 13 articles (09/2021 - 01/2019)
8. Bose, Anushree: 13 articles (10/2018 - 09/2013)
9. Sommer, Iris E C: 13 articles (06/2018 - 07/2010)
10. Aarsland, Dag: 12 articles (01/2021 - 11/2006)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Hallucinations:
1. Antipsychotic Agents (Antipsychotics)IBA
04/01/1988 - "The main findings of the study were as follows: (a) the gray matter mean values of cerebral blood flow for both hemispheres were slightly but significantly lower in the schizophrenic group, and the statistical variance was significantly greater in the patients than in the control group; (b) the mean value for each hemisphere was found to be significantly lower for the right hemisphere; (c) the physiological hyperfrontal patterns of cerebral blood flow were identical in patients and controls; (d) visual hallucinations were associated with a reduction of regional cerebral blood flow in the temporo-occipital regions; and (e) antipsychotic medication did not appear to influence gray matter cerebral blood flow."
02/01/2018 - "Antipsychotic medication is effective in the majority, but a significant minority experiences high burden from resistant hallucinations. "
09/01/2006 - "Analysis of the time course of symptoms showed that substitution of a single novel antipsychotic for conventional antipsychotic regimes was followed by a significant reduction in delusions but no improvement in hallucinations or negative symptoms. "
08/01/2014 - "Overall, the present model may help to understand the neurobiological basis of hallucinations and to identify new targets in antipsychotic drug development. "
01/01/2012 - "This focus contrasts with the development of first and second-generation antipsychotics; these drugs were considered effective when they treated psychotic symptoms such as auditory hallucinations, suspiciousness, delusions, and disorganized behaviors. "
2. salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM)IBA
3. Pharmaceutical PreparationsIBA
4. Clozapine (Clozaril)FDA LinkGeneric
5. pimavanserinIBA
6. Cholinesterase Inhibitors (Anticholinesterases)IBA
7. Olanzapine (Zyprexa)FDA Link
8. Quetiapine Fumarate (Seroquel)FDA Link
9. Donepezil (Aricept)FDA LinkGeneric
10. Risperidone (Risperdal Consta)FDA LinkGeneric

Therapies and Procedures

1. Therapeutics
2. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
3. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
4. Aftercare (After-Treatment)
5. Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)