A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is above its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the top or the side of the PENIS, but the urethra can also be open the entire length of the penis. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is often between the CLITORIS and the labia, or in the ABDOMEN.
Also Known As:
Networked: 144 relevant articles (6 outcomes, 5 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Urinary Incontinence
2. Bladder Exstrophy (Exstrophy, Bladder)
3. Hypospadias
4. Fistula
5. Pathologic Constriction (Stenosis)


1. Gearhart, John P: 9 articles (12/2014 - 03/2003)
2. Reutter, Heiko: 8 articles (10/2014 - 09/2008)
3. Gearhart, J P: 7 articles (04/2008 - 09/2000)
4. Nöthen, Markus M: 4 articles (06/2014 - 07/2010)
5. Draaken, Markus: 4 articles (06/2014 - 07/2010)
6. Bartels, Enrika: 4 articles (06/2014 - 07/2010)
7. Ebert, Anne-Karoline: 4 articles (06/2014 - 11/2011)
8. Ludwig, Michael: 4 articles (06/2014 - 07/2010)
9. Rösch, Wolfgang H: 4 articles (11/2011 - 09/2008)
10. Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad: 4 articles (11/2011 - 05/2007)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Epispadias:
1. CosmeticsIBA
2. baysilon (polydimethylsiloxane)IBA
3. Fibrin Tissue Adhesive (Fibrin Sealant)IBA
4. pamidronate (APD)FDA LinkGeneric
5. AntigensIBA
6. CollagenIBA
7. Anorectal atresiaIBA
10/01/2011 - "The aim of the German Network for Congenital Uro-REctal Malformations is to collect data of affected patients with anorectal malformation (ARM) or extrophy-epispadias complex, and to investigate molecular causes, clinical implications, and psychosocial outcome. "
10/01/2013 - "Most common cause for VUR was Primary (60%), followed by posterior urethral valve (PUV) (19%), bladder exstrophy (5%), anorectal malformation (ARM), epispadias, and duplex system. "
10/01/2006 - "Patients with bladder exstrophy and many previous bladder procedures are more exposed to complications such as erosion compared with patients with epispadias or anorectal malformation. "
10/01/2006 - "Instead there were bladder exstrophy in 12 patients, anorectal malformation with a rectourethral or vesical fistula in 7 and epispadias in 4. A bladder neck cuff between 5.5 and 7.5 cm, and a 61-70 balloon were used in all patients. "
01/01/1990 - "Report of the observation of a female newborn presenting a complex malformative set: distal anorectal malformation without fistula; bladder exstrophy without epispadias, with cutaneous bridge; congenital urethrovaginal fistula; malformative sexual ambiguity with bulky genital tubercle, whole urethra, urethral meatus on the apex of the genital tubercle, associated with a mid labial genital joint and a high genital orifice; unilateral multicystic kidney; vertebral abnormalities with supernumerary thoracolumbar vertebrae; no karyotype abnormalities and no familial pathological history; no endocrine abnormalities. "
8. Sacral agenesisIBA
08/01/1993 - "The diagnoses were epispadias/exstrophy complex (19 patients), myelodysplasia (11), cloacal exstrophy (6), posterior urethral valves (6), Hinman syndrome (4), sacral agenesis (3) and other (8). "
06/01/1997 - "The etiology of incontinence included myelodysplasia in 12 patients, exstrophy/epispadias in 4, and epidural abscess, sacral agenesis, imperforate anus and posterior urethral valves in 1 each. "
12/01/1984 - "The majority (79%) had neurologic dysfunction of the bladder because of spinal malformation (myelodysplasia, sacral agenesis, or trauma) and the remaining were a mixed group including exstrophy/epispadias, urethral valves, pelvic fractures, etc. The patients were grouped in six categories. "
11/01/2003 - "Seven patients had exstrophy-epispadias, seven spinal dysraphism, two sacral agenesis, and one each cerebral palsy, epispadias, imperforate anus and small bladder with vesico-ureteric reflux and congenital incontinence. "
08/01/1989 - "Incontinence resulted from myelodysplasia in 16 patients, sacral agenesis in 3, spinal cord injury in 6, posterior urethral valves in 1, bilateral ectopic ureters in 1 and epispadias-exstrophy in 3. Erosion occurred in 2 patients (7 per cent): 1 female patient who underwent simultaneous sphincter implantation and enterocystoplasty and who had undergone previously many bladder neck reconstructive procedures, including polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) injection, and 1 female patient in whom the augmented bladder was entered at artificial urinary sphincter implantation. "
9. Penis agenesisIBA
10. Testosterone (Sustanon)FDA Link

Therapies and Procedures

1. Osteotomy
2. Urinary Diversion (Ileal Conduit)
3. Transplantation (Transplant Recipients)
4. Transplants (Transplant)
5. Artificial Urinary Sphincter