Depressive Disorder (Melancholia)

An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
Also Known As:
Melancholia; Depressive Disorders; Depressions, Endogenous; Depressions, Neurotic; Depressions, Unipolar; Depressive Neuroses; Depressive Neurosis; Depressive Syndromes; Disorder, Depressive; Disorders, Depressive; Endogenous Depression; Endogenous Depressions; Melancholias; Neuroses, Depressive; Neurotic Depression; Neurotic Depressions; Syndrome, Depressive; Syndromes, Depressive; Unipolar Depressions; Depression, Endogenous; Depression, Neurotic; Depression, Unipolar; Depressive Syndrome; Neurosis, Depressive; Unipolar Depression
Networked: 3991 relevant articles (334 outcomes, 645 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Bipolar Disorder (Mania)
2. Mood Disorders (Mood Disorder)
3. Major Depressive Disorder (Major Depressive Disorders)
4. Panic Disorder (Panic Attack)
5. Schizophrenia (Dementia Praecox)


1. Gałecki, Piotr: 21 articles (01/2015 - 12/2004)
2. Krupina, N A: 16 articles (07/2015 - 02/2000)
3. Szemraj, Janusz: 13 articles (01/2015 - 01/2009)
4. Khlebnikova, N N: 12 articles (07/2015 - 06/2002)
5. Maes, Michael: 12 articles (12/2014 - 02/2005)
6. Thase, Michael E: 12 articles (01/2014 - 06/2002)
7. Dudek, Dominika: 11 articles (01/2016 - 11/2002)
8. Orlova, I N: 11 articles (07/2015 - 02/2000)
9. Talarowska, Monika: 11 articles (01/2015 - 07/2011)
10. Florkowski, Antoni: 11 articles (01/2013 - 12/2004)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Depressive Disorder:
1. Antidepressive Agents (Antidepressants)IBA
2. LithiumIBA
3. venlafaxine (Effexor)FDA LinkGeneric
4. Imipramine (Janimine)FDA LinkGeneric
5. Citalopram (Escitalopram)FDA Link
01/01/1985 - "The relationship between improvement (percentage reduction in total score on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale) and serum level of citalopram indicated a lower limit of effect in endogenous depression at about 100 nM, corresponding to an average dose of 15 mg. Marked improvement was seen in ten patients with steady state levels in the range 70 to 335 nM. The ten nonendogenously depressed patients had steady state levels from 15 to 620 nM; complete remission was seen in the three with the lowest levels (15-25 nM). "
01/01/1999 - "The results of this study indicate that citalopram is safe and effective in the treatment of depressed patients with melancholia, and is associated with a favorable side effect profile and a potentially rapid onset of action."
05/01/2015 - "Following escitalopram treatment, improvement in apathy significantly correlated with improvement in disability measures, while change in the rest of the depressive syndrome did not. "
12/01/1999 - "Citalopram was significantly more effective than placebo in the treatment of moderate-to-severe major depression, especially symptoms of depressed mood and melancholia, with particularly robust effects shown at doses of 40 and 60 mg/day. "
12/01/1999 - "Patients randomly assigned to 40 mg/day and 60 mg/day of citalopram showed significantly greater improvement than placebo on all efficacy measures, as well as on the HAM-D symptom clusters measuring depressed mood, melancholia, cognitive disturbance, and psychomotor retardation. "
6. Fluoxetine (Prozac)FDA LinkGeneric
7. Serotonin (5 Hydroxytryptamine)IBA
8. Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors (Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors)IBA
9. Amitriptyline (Elavil)FDA LinkGeneric
10. Sertraline (Zoloft)FDA LinkGeneric

Therapies and Procedures

1. Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
2. Aftercare (After-Treatment)
3. Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
07/01/2001 - "Patients whose depressive disorder remitted at follow-up had significantly greater recovery in ADL functions compared with patients whose depression did not remit. "
04/01/2015 - "Activity of daily living was assessed with the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL), life events were evaluated with the Life Event Scale, depressive disorders were diagnosed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and QOL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (SF-12) and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). "
01/01/2015 - "Patients receiving pharmacological treatment for depression or other illnesses were included.  Types of intervention(s)/phenomena of interest:  This review considered studies that used nonpharmacological interventions for older adults with depressive disorders.  Types of studies:  This review considered any experimental study design, including randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, or other quasi-experimental studies, including before and after studies.  Types of outcomes:  This review considered studies that included the following outcome measures: depressive symptomatology.  The secondary outcomes were the level of autonomy in activities of daily living, cognitive function, health-related quality of life and wellbeing. "
04/04/2006 - "One year after a baseline evaluation, data were collected by using the following tools: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the depressive disorders section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition), Charlson Comorbidity Index, Multilevel Assessment Instrument for measuring instrumental activities of daily living, Physical Component Summary of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, and Duke Social Support Index. "
07/01/2015 - "We aimed to determine the prevalence of neurocognitive impairment using the IHDS and depressive disorders using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17), compare the IHDS performance with the performances on the Timed Gait Test (TGT), the Digit Symbol Coding Test (DS) and the Brazilian version of the Scale of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), and evaluate the association between the IHDS performance and clinical-demographic variables. "
4. Phototherapy (Light Therapy)
5. Meditation