Deglutition Disorders (Dysphagia)

Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.
Also Known As:
Dysphagia; Dysphagia, Esophageal; Swallowing Disorder; Swallowing Disorders; Esophageal Dysphagia; Oropharyngeal Dysphagia; Deglutition Disorder; Disorders, Deglutition; Dysphagia, Oropharyngeal
Networked: 4413 relevant articles (454 outcomes, 398 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Pathologic Constriction (Stenosis)
2. Gastroesophageal Reflux (GERD)
3. Neoplasms (Cancer)
4. Pain (Aches)
5. Esophageal Neoplasms (Esophageal Cancer)


1. Siersema, Peter D: 37 articles (12/2014 - 03/2003)
2. Song, Ho-Young: 19 articles (06/2015 - 03/2003)
3. Siersema, P D: 13 articles (10/2013 - 02/2000)
4. Kuipers, Ernst J: 13 articles (07/2012 - 03/2003)
5. Nguyen, Nam P: 13 articles (01/2012 - 03/2005)
6. Kim, Jin Hyoung: 12 articles (06/2015 - 06/2008)
7. Vleggaar, Frank P: 12 articles (12/2014 - 12/2008)
8. Vos, Paul: 12 articles (01/2012 - 03/2005)
9. Sallah, Sabah: 12 articles (08/2009 - 03/2005)
10. Smith, Herbert J: 12 articles (08/2009 - 03/2005)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Deglutition Disorders:
1. Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum Toxin)IBA
11/01/1999 - "These results show that: (1) previous pneumatic dilatation did not affect the results of myotomy; (2) in patients who did not respond to botulinum toxin, the myotomy was technically straightforward and the outcome was excellent; (3) in patients who responded to botulinum toxin, the LES muscle had become fibrotic (perforation occurred more often in this setting, and dysphagia was less predictably improved); and (4) myotomy relieved dysphagia in 91% of patients who had not been treated with botulinum toxin. "
05/01/2006 - "We describe 2 patients whose dysphagia was due to cricopharyngeal muscle over-activity and who significantly improved after a percutaneous botulinum toxin injection in the cricopharyngeal muscle in combination with a rehabilitation treatment (dietary modifications, postural techniques, airflow protection manoeuvres). "
11/01/2013 - "In a previous pilot study, we demonstrated that a single injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in the cricopharyngeus muscle is effective in patients with neurologic dysphagia with upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening dysfunction and presence of some pharyngeal contraction (>25 mmHg). "
02/01/2013 - "We sought to review the dysphagia-related outcomes and quality of life in a series of patients with upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction treated with cricopharyngeal (CP) botulinum toxin (BTX) injection, and to identify patient characteristics or CP muscle histologic features that predict efficacy of BTX injection. "
10/01/2012 - "SCM thickness was <1.1 cm. US combined with EMG guidance eliminated recurrent dysphagia after botulinum toxin treatment, possibly by keeping the injectate within the SCM."
2. 1-phenyl-3,3-dimethyltriazene (PDT)IBA
3. BariumIBA
4. onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox)FDA Link
5. PlasticsIBA
6. Omeprazole (Esomeprazole)FDA LinkGeneric
7. IronIBA
8. salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM)IBA
9. Proton Pumps (Proton Pump)IBA
10. Phenobarbital (Luminal)FDA Link

Therapies and Procedures

1. Stents
2. Fundoplication
3. Aftercare (After-Treatment)
4. Brachytherapy
5. Radiotherapy