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Integrin function in osteoclasts.

Abstract
Integrins are a large family of heteromeric cell surface receptors composed of non-covalently bound alpha and beta subunits which interact with extracellular matrix molecules, serum constituents and the adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin family. The extracellular domains of many integrins recognize the RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) tripeptide found in several extracellular macromolecules such as fibronectin, vitronectin, fibrinogen and osteopontin. The vitronectin receptor, alpha v beta 3 integrin, is highly expressed in osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells, and binds many of these RGD containing proteins including osteopontin, which is abundant in bone. Antibodies to alpha v beta 3, RGD peptides and RGD containing proteins such as echistatin, and kistrin were shown to inhibit bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. The identity of the alpha v beta 3 natural ligand and its mode of action in bone are so far not known. In addition to the very high levels of alpha v beta 3, mammalian osteoclasts also express alpha 2 beta 1, a collagen/laminin receptor and alpha v beta 1, another vitronectin receptor. Signaling events that follow substrate recognition by osteoclasts are not well understood. RGD containing peptides and proteins modulate [Ca2+] transients in osteoclasts and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and pp60c-src are associated with alpha v beta 3 in these cells. alpha v and beta 3 genes were shown to be regulated by the calciotropic hormone 1,25(OH)2D3 and by a number of cytokines known to be modulators of bone metabolism. In summary, elucidation of the interactions of osteoclast integrins with components of bone matrix, may lead to further understanding of the mechanism of bone resorption.
AuthorsS B Rodan, G A Rodan
JournalThe Journal of endocrinology (J Endocrinol) Vol. 154 Suppl Pg. S47-56 (Sep 1997) ISSN: 0022-0795 [Print] ENGLAND
PMID9379137 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Review)
Chemical References
  • Integrins
  • Receptors, Vitronectin
Topics
  • Animals
  • Bone Resorption (metabolism)
  • Humans
  • Integrins (physiology)
  • Models, Biological
  • Osteoclasts (metabolism)
  • Receptors, Vitronectin (physiology)
  • Signal Transduction (physiology)

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