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Enhanced oral absorption and antiviral activity of 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-acyclovir and related compounds in hepatitis B virus infection, in vitro.

Abstract
Acyclovir (ACV) triphosphate and azidothymidine (AZT) triphosphate inhibit the DNA polymerase of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) by 50% at submicromolar concentrations, but no effects of ACV or AZT treatment have been noted on the clinical manifestations of hepatitis B. We synthesized 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-acyclovir (ODG-P-ACV), 1-O-hexadecylpropanediol-3-phospho-acyclovir (HDP-P-ACV), and 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-azidothymidine (ODG-P-AZT), and evaluated their antiviral activity in human hepatoma cells that constitutively produce HBV (2.2.15 cells). ACV and AZT up to 100 microM caused only slight inhibition of HBV replication in 2.2.15 cells. However, HDP-P-ACV and ODG-P-ACV inhibited viral replication by 50% at 0.5 and 6.8 microM, respectively. ODG-P-AZT also showed increased antiviral activity, with a 50% reduction in HBV replication at 2.1 microM. Based on the EC50, HDP-P-ACV, ODG-P-ACV, and ODG-P-AZT were > 200, > 14.7, and > 48 times more active than their free nucleosides in reducing HBV replication in 2.2.15 cells. To evaluate the biochemical basis for the increased antiviral activity, we studied the uptake and metabolism of 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-[3H]acyclovir (ODG-P-[3H]ACV) in HepG2 cells. Cellular uptake of ODG-P-[3H]ACV was found to be substantially greater than that of [3H]ACV, and cellular levels of ACV-mono-, -di-, and -triphosphate were much higher with ODG-P-ACV. ODG-P-[3H]ACV was well absorbed orally. Based on urinary recovery of tritium after oral or parenteral administration of the radiolabeled compounds, oral absorption of ODG-P-ACV in mice was 100% versus 37% for ACV. ODG-P-ACV plasma area under the curve was more than 7-fold greater than that of ACV. Lipid prodrugs of this type may be useful orally in treating viral diseases.
AuthorsK Y Hostetler, J R Beadle, G D Kini, M F Gardner, K N Wright, T H Wu, B A Korba
JournalBiochemical pharmacology (Biochem Pharmacol) Vol. 53 Issue 12 Pg. 1815-22 (Jun 15 1997) ISSN: 0006-2952 [Print] ENGLAND
PMID9256156 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S., Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.)
Chemical References
  • 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-acyclovir
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Zidovudine
  • Acyclovir
Topics
  • Acyclovir (analogs & derivatives, chemical synthesis, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology)
  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Antiviral Agents (pharmacokinetics, pharmacology)
  • Biological Availability
  • Hepatitis B virus (drug effects)
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Mice
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured (drug effects, metabolism)
  • Virus Replication (drug effects)
  • Zidovudine (pharmacology)

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