Activation of CGS 12094 (prinomide metabolite) to 1,4-benzoquinone by myeloperoxidase: implications for human idiosyncratic agranulocytosis.

Many marketed pharmaceuticals are known to cause idiosyncratic agranulocytosis in humans. Similarly prinomide, an antiinflammatory drug, was associated with a low incidence of agranulocytosis (<0.3%) in clinical trials, even though chronic toxicity studies in rodents and primates showed no evidence of agranulocytosis with either prinomide or its parahydroxy metabolite, CGS 12094. To investigate mechanisms for this human specific toxicity, experiments were conducted to study the metabolism of prinomide and CGS 12094 by myeloperoxidase (MPO), a major enzyme of neutrophils and leukocyte progenitor cells. Although prinomide was not metabolized by human MPO, CGS 12094 was rapidly metabolized (>90%; 2 min); this reaction was dependent on H2O2 and MPO and was inhibited by azide. During the MPO-catalyzed metabolism of CGS 12094, reactive intermediates that irreversibly bound to protein and cysteine were generated. One of the reactive metabolites generated was identified by mass spectroscopy and trapping with cysteine as 1,4-benzoquinone, a compound implicated in the myelotoxicity associated with benzene. Thus during conditions which lead to elevated levels of H2O2 (e.g., active inflammation), CGS 12094 is rapidly metabolized by MPO to reactive intermediates that may be related to prinomide-induced agranulocytosis.
AuthorsD D Parrish, M J Schlosser, J C Kapeghian, V M Traina
JournalFundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology (Fundam Appl Toxicol) Vol. 35 Issue 2 Pg. 197-204 (Feb 1997) ISSN: 0272-0590 [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID9038241 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Benzoquinones
  • Free Radicals
  • Pyrroles
  • Serum Albumin
  • CGS 12094
  • benzoquinone
  • prinomide
  • Peroxidase
  • Agranulocytosis (enzymology)
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal (pharmacokinetics)
  • Benzoquinones (metabolism)
  • Biotransformation (drug effects)
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Free Radicals (metabolism)
  • Humans
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Peroxidase (metabolism)
  • Protein Binding
  • Pyrroles (pharmacokinetics)
  • Serum Albumin (metabolism)
  • Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet

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