Modulation of ecotropic murine retroviruses by N-linked glycosylation of the cell surface receptor/amino acid transporter.

The cell surface receptor for ecotropic host-range (infection limited to mice or rats) murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) is the widely expressed system y+ transporter for cationic amino acids (CAT-1). Like other retroviruses, ecotropic MuLV infection eliminates virus-binding sites from cell surfaces and results in complete interference to superinfection. Surprisingly, infection causes only partial (ca 40 to 60%) loss of mouse CAT-1 transporter activity. The NIH/Swiss mouse CAT-1 (mCAT-1) contains 622 amino acids with 14 hydrophobic potential membrane-spanning sequences, and it is known that the third extracellular loop from the amino terminus is required for virus binding. Although loop 3 is hypervariable in different species and mouse strains, consistent with its proposed role in virus-host coevolution, loop 3 sequences of both susceptible and resistant species contain consensus sites for N-linked glycosylation. Both of the consensus sites in loop 3 of mCAT-1 are known to be glycosylated and to contain oligosaccharides with diverse sizes (J. W. Kim and J. M. Cunningham, J. Biol. Chem. 268:16316-16320, 1993). We confirmed by several lines of evidence that N-linked glycosylation occludes a potentially functional virus-binding site in the CAT-1 protein of hamsters, thus contributing to resistance of that species. To study the role of receptor glycosylation in animals susceptible to infection, we eliminated loop 3 glycosylation sites by mutagenesis of an mCAT-1 cDNA clone, and we expressed wild-type and mutant receptors in mink fibroblasts and Xenopus oocytes. These receptors had indistinguishable transport properties, as determined by kinetic and voltage-jump electrophysiological studies of arginine uptake in oocytes and by analyses Of L-[3H]arginine uptake in mink cells. Bindings of ecotropic envelope glycoprotein gp7O to the accessible receptor sites on surfaces of mink cells expressing wild-type or mutant mCAT-1 were not significantly different in kinetics or in equilibrium affinities (i.e., K(D) approximately 3.7 X 10(-10) to 7.5 X 10(-10) M). However, when values were normalized to the same levels of mCAT-1 transporter expression, cells with wild-type glycosylated mCAT-1 had only approximately 50% as many sites for gp70 binding as cells with unglycosylated mCAT-1. Although infection with ecotropic MuLV had no effect on activity of the mink CAT-1 transporter that does not bind virus, it caused partial down-modulation of wild-type mCAT-1 and complete down-modulation of unglycosylated mutant mCAT-1. These results suggest that N-linked glycosylation causes wild-type mCAT-1 heterogeneity and that a significant proportion is inaccessible to virus. In part because only the interactive fraction of mCAT-1 can be down-modulated, infected murine cells conserve an amino acid transport capability that supports their viability.
AuthorsH Wang, E Klamo, S E Kuhmann, S L Kozak, M P Kavanaugh, D Kabat
JournalJournal of virology (J Virol) Vol. 70 Issue 10 Pg. 6884-91 (Oct 1996) ISSN: 0022-538X [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID8794331 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.)
Chemical References
  • Amino Acid Transport Systems
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Receptors, Virus
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Amino Acid Transport Systems
  • Animals
  • Carrier Proteins (genetics, metabolism)
  • Cell Line
  • Cricetinae
  • Down-Regulation
  • Glycosylation
  • Humans
  • Leukemia Virus, Murine (metabolism, pathogenicity)
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Rats
  • Receptors, Virus (metabolism)
  • Sequence Analysis
  • Virulence
  • Xenopus

Join CureHunter, for free Research Interface BASIC access!

Take advantage of free CureHunter research engine access to explore the best drug and treatment options for any disease. Find out why thousands of doctors, pharma researchers and patient activists around the world use CureHunter every day.
Realize the full power of the drug-disease research network!

Choose Username:
Verify Password: