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Mitral annular calcification in CAPD patients with a low degree of hyperparathyroidism. An analysis of other possible risk factors.

Abstract
Chronic renal failure has been suggested as a risk factor for mitral annular calcification (MAC), a degenerative process of the mitral annulus. The objective of the present study was to define MAC risk factors at the start of dialysis and 'de-novo' appearance after medium- or long-term CAPD, in a non-selected population (135 patients) with a low degree of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Echocardiographic studies were performed at the beginning of CAPD and every 1-1.5 years thereafter. Diagnosis of MAC was established by M mode and 2-D study. Seventeen of 135 patients studied at the start of dialysis showed MAC. Patients who showed MAC were older and presented a higher mean systolic blood pressure. The other anthropometric/demographic parameters did not show statistically significant differences. MAC thickness: mean 6.21 +/- 3.65 mm (range 3-17.2 mm). The posterior annulus was universally affected and in four patients the anterior annulus was involved. Seventeen of 76 patients included in the follow-up study developed MAC. No significant differences for demography, except age, with MAC patients being older, were found. Mean time on CAPD until de-novo MAC diagnosis was 49.7 +/- 26.9 months. MAC thickness: mean 4.97 +/- 1.6 mm (range 3-8.42 mm). The posterior annulus was affected in all patients except for one and in four patients the anterior annulus was involved. The most remarkable echocardiographic feature is the almost constant association of MAC with left atrial dilatation (LAD). The last one does not seem a consequence of mitral insufficiency, or systolic dysfunction. Left ventricular hypertrophy was universally found, with no different intensities for patients with or without MAC. In conclusion, a high incidence of mitral annular calcification has been found in CAPD patients. Our data do not confirm the role of classical invoked risk factors. Blood CaP product under 75, a moderate to mild degree of hyperparathyroidism and/or hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy do not seem to be isolated risk factors during the CAPD period. Length of time on CAPD, for unknown reasons, seems to favour the appearance of MAC. At starting dialysis, high systolic blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy seem to be related to MAC. Diabetes appears to represent an additional risk factor. Further research on mitral annular calcification pathogenesis and its consequences is urgently required.
AuthorsM J Fernandez-Reyes, M Auxiliadora Bajo, P Robles, R Selgas, J Oliver, G Del Peso, G Garcia, C Jimenez, F Garcia-Gallego
JournalNephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association (Nephrol Dial Transplant) Vol. 10 Issue 11 Pg. 2090-5 (Nov 1995) ISSN: 0931-0509 [Print] ENGLAND
PMID8643173 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Topics
  • Calcinosis (epidemiology, etiology, ultrasonography)
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Echocardiography
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary (complications, therapy, ultrasonography)
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic (complications, therapy, ultrasonography)
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitral Valve (pathology, ultrasonography)
  • Morbidity
  • Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory (adverse effects)
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors

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