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Cardiac-derived thromboxane A2. An initiating mediator of reperfusion injury?

Abstract
After crystalloid cardioplegic arrest, cardiac-derived thromboxane A2 may be an important initiating mediator of no-reflow and hemodynamic deterioration during reperfusion because of its potent vasoactive properties. Although previous studies have already documented the increased release of cardiac thromboxane A2 after ischemia, none have studied the effects of cardiac thromboxane A2 on hemodynamics. We therefore tested the ability of cardiac thromboxane A2 to mediate deterioration of coronary flow and functional recovery during reperfusion after global ischemia. Crystalloid-perfused rat hearts that had undergone Langendorff preparation (n = 30) were subjected to 2 hours of global ischemia at 15 degrees C under cardioplegic protection with (n = 15) or without (n = 15) thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist SQ29548. In eight of 15 hearts in each group, preischemic and postischemic aortic flow, coronary flow, cardiac output, heart rate, and stroke work were determined. In the remaining seven hearts in each group, preischemic and postischemic coronary effluent levels of the stable hydrolysis product of thromboxane A2 and thromboxane B2 were determined with radioimmunoassay through the use of nonrecirculating perfusate. At the completion of the experiment, water content was determined by wet weight/dry weight calculations. In a separate group (n = 7) preischemic myocardial water content was determined. Within the group protected by cardioplegic solution alone, postischemic aortic flow, coronary flow, cardiac output, and stroke work were all significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with preischemic values (aortic flow, 50.8 +/- 2.7 versus 29.4 +/- 3.3 ml/min; coronary flow, 13.2 +/- 1.3 versus 8.5 +/- 1.3 ml/min; cardiac output, 64.0 +/- 3.8 versus 38.0 +/- 4.4 ml/min; stroke work, 12.5 +/- 0.7 versus 7.1 +/- 0.8 cm H2O.ml). In relation to the group with cardioplegic solution alone, postischemic aortic flow, coronary flow, cardiac output, and stroke work were all significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the group with the receptor antagonist (aortic flow: 49.5 +/- 2.4 versus 29.4 +/- 3.3 ml/min; coronary flow; 12.4 +/- 1.2 versus 8.5 +/- 1.3 ml/min; cardiac output, 62.0 +/- 2.8 versus 38.0 +/- 4.4 ml/min; stroke work, 12.6 +/- 0.8 versus 7.1 +/- 0.8 cm H2O.ml). Overall, postischemic coronary effluent thromboxane B2 levels were greater than preischemic values (105.6 +/- 12.4 versus 69.6 +/- 9.8, p < 0.05) and treatment with the receptor antagonist did not significantly affect postischemic thromboxane B2 levels (92.0 +/- 7.3 versus 82.3 +/- 15.5, p = not significant). Neither ischemia nor treatment with the receptor antagonist significantly affected heart rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
AuthorsJ G Byrne, R F Appleyard, S C Sun, G S Couper, J A Sloane, R G Laurence, L H Cohn
JournalThe Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg) Vol. 105 Issue 4 Pg. 689-93 (Apr 1993) ISSN: 0022-5223 [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID8469003 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.)
Chemical References
  • Cardioplegic Solutions
  • Hydrazines
  • Thromboxane B2
  • Thromboxane A2
  • SQ 29548
Topics
  • Animals
  • Cardiac Output
  • Cardioplegic Solutions
  • Coronary Circulation (drug effects)
  • Hydrazines (antagonists & inhibitors)
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Male
  • Myocardial Ischemia (etiology, physiopathology)
  • Myocardial Reperfusion Injury (etiology, physiopathology)
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Stroke Volume
  • Thromboxane A2 (antagonists & inhibitors, metabolism, pharmacology)
  • Thromboxane B2 (metabolism)

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