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Effects of long-term oral magnesium chloride replacement in congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease.

Abstract
Magnesium deficiency frequently develops in patients with congestive heart failure and may increase susceptibility to lethal arrhythmias and sudden death via multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms. The effects of peroral magnesium supplementation were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial involving 21 patients with stable congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease. All were receiving long-term loop diuretics, and had normal renal function, and low or normal serum magnesium concentrations. Subjects alternately received enteric-coated magnesium chloride (15.8 mmol magnesium per day) and placebo for 6 weeks. Magnesium therapy increased serum magnesium from 0.87 +/- 0.07 to 0.92 +/- 0.05 mmol/liter (p < 0.05), serum potassium from 4.0 +/- 0.3 to 4.3 +/- 0.4 mmol/liter (p < 0.01) and urinary magnesium excretion from 2.82 +/- 0.96 to 4.74 +/- 2.38 mmol/24 hours (p = 0.001). There was no significant change in heart rate or Doppler cardiac index, but mean arterial pressure decreased from 91 +/- 10 to 87 +/- 10 mm Hg (p < 0.05) and systemic vascular resistance from 1,698 +/- 367 to 1,613 +/- 331 dynes s cm-5 (p = 0.047). The frequency of isolated ventricular premature complexes was reduced by 23% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6 to 37%; p < 0.02), couplets by 52% (95% CI 30 to 65%; p < 0.001) and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia episodes by 24% (95% CI 15 to 49%; p < 0.01). Plasma epinephrine decreased from 447 +/- 535 to 184 +/- 106 pg/ml (p = 0.02), but there was no corresponding change in plasma norepinephrine or heart rate variability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
AuthorsY Bashir, J F Sneddon, H A Staunton, G A Haywood, I A Simpson, W J McKenna, A J Camm
JournalThe American journal of cardiology (Am J Cardiol) Vol. 72 Issue 15 Pg. 1156-62 (Nov 15 1993) ISSN: 0002-9149 [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID8237806 (Publication Type: Clinical Trial, Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Electrolytes
  • Magnesium Chloride
Topics
  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Coronary Disease (complications, physiopathology)
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Electrolytes (blood)
  • Female
  • Heart Failure (drug therapy, etiology, physiopathology)
  • Hemodynamics (drug effects)
  • Humans
  • Magnesium Chloride (adverse effects, pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Tachycardia, Ventricular (physiopathology, prevention & control)
  • Time Factors

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