Glutathione-mediated modulation of tetraplatin activity against sensitive and resistant tumor cells.

Tetraplatin (Ormaplatin) has good antitumor activity against some cisplatin-resistant cells and is currently being studied in clinical trials. We have studied the effect of extracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) on the cytotoxicity and biochemical pharmacology of tetraplatin in L1210 leukemia cells. Parent L1210/0 cells were exposed to tetraplatin for 2 hr with or without GSH in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS), and cytotoxicity was assessed by a soft agar clonogenic assay. GSH (10 or 100 microM) increased tetraplatin (10 microM)-induced cell kill by about 2 logs; concentrations of the thiol 10-fold below or above these levels increased cell kill to a lesser degree. GSH-mediated increases in the cytotoxicity of tetraplatin were also observed against cisplatin-resistant L1210/DDP and tetraplatin-resistant L1210/DACH cells. An equimolar concentration of 1,2-diaminocyclohexane-platinum(II) dichloride [DACH-Pt(II)Cl2] alone was as cytotoxic as the combination of tetraplatin and GSH. Intracellular accumulations of tetraplatin in both L1210/0 and L1210/DDP cells were increased by GSH, whereas in L1210/DACH cells platinum uptake decreased in the presence of the thiol. Reactions between tetraplatin and salmon sperm DNA in the presence or absence of GSH (1 or 100 microM), performed at 37 degrees in HBSS, revealed that levels of total and interstrand DNA-platinum adducts were minimal in the absence of GSH, whereas in the presence of GSH DNA adducts of tetraplatin were substantial and similar to those seen with DACH-Pt(II)Cl2. Tetraplatin (10 microM) incubated at 37 degrees in HBSS with GSH (10 microM-1 mM) was reduced chemically to the DACH-Pt(II) species within 5 min; a 200-microM tetraplatin solution required a GSH concentration of at least 100 microM for substantial reduction to occur. This chemical reduction of tetraplatin appears to be a prerequisite for its biological activity. Thus, extracellular GSH can modulate the biological activity of tetraplatin, and the combination may prove useful in specific clinical applications, such as intracavitary platinum therapy.
AuthorsY Kido, A R Khokhar, Z H Siddik
JournalBiochemical pharmacology (Biochem Pharmacol) Vol. 47 Issue 9 Pg. 1635-42 (Apr 29 1994) ISSN: 0006-2952 [Print] ENGLAND
PMID8185678 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.)
Chemical References
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Organoplatinum Compounds
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds
  • dichloro-1,2-diaminocyclohexane platinum complex
  • DNA
  • Glutathione
  • ormaplatin
  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents (pharmacology)
  • Biotransformation (drug effects)
  • Cell Death (drug effects)
  • DNA (metabolism)
  • Drug Resistance
  • Glutathione (pharmacology)
  • Leukemia L1210
  • Organoplatinum Compounds (metabolism, pharmacology)
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds (analysis)
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured

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