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Knockout of the mouse apolipoprotein B gene results in embryonic lethality in homozygotes and protection against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in heterozygotes.

Abstract
Apolipoprotein B is synthesized by the intestine and the liver in mammals, where it serves as the main structural component in the formation of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins, respectively. Apolipoprotein B is also expressed in mammalian fetal membranes. To examine the consequences of apolipoprotein B deficiency in mice, we used gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells to generate mice containing an insertional disruption of the 5' region of the apolipoprotein B gene. Mice that were heterozygous for the disrupted apolipoprotein B allele had an approximately 20% reduction in plasma cholesterol levels, markedly reduced plasma concentrations of the pre-beta and beta-migrating lipoproteins, and an approximately 70% reduction in plasma apolipoprotein B levels. When fed a diet rich in fat and cholesterol, heterozygous mice were protected from diet-induced hypercholesterolemia; these mice, which constitute an animal model for hypobetalipoproteinemia, should be useful for studying the effects of decreased apolipoprotein B expression on atherogenesis. The breeding of heterozygous mice yielded no viable homozygous apolipoprotein B knockout mice. Most homozygous embryos were resorbed by midgestation (before gestational day 11.5); several embryos that survived until later in gestation exhibited exencephalus. The embryonic lethal phenotype was rescued by complementation with a human apolipoprotein B transgene--i.e., human apolipoprotein B transgenic mice that were homozygous for the murine apolipoprotein B knockout mutation were viable. Our findings indicate that apolipoprotein B plays an essential role in mouse embryonic development.
AuthorsR V Farese Jr, S L Ruland, L M Flynn, R P Stokowski, S G Young
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A) Vol. 92 Issue 5 Pg. 1774-8 (Feb 28 1995) ISSN: 0027-8424 [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID7878058 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.)
Chemical References
  • Apolipoproteins B
  • Dietary Fats
  • Lipids
Topics
  • Animals
  • Apolipoproteins B (genetics)
  • Dietary Fats (metabolism)
  • Fetal Death
  • Genetic Complementation Test
  • Heterozygote
  • Homozygote
  • Humans
  • Lipids (blood)
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mice, Transgenic

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