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Small cell osteosarcoma of bone: an immunohistochemical study with differential diagnostic considerations.

Abstract
Seventy-nine cases of small round cell tumors involving bone were studied in an attempt to learn whether the immunohistochemical features of the lesions might allow distinction of small cell osteosarcoma from other potential differential diagnostic considerations, including Ewing's sarcoma, atypical Ewing's sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, lymphoma, and the Askin tumor. The tissues studied were all formalin-fixed, decalcified, paraffin sections from patients between the ages of 16 and 48 years. With one exception (a small cell osteosarcoma), none of the lesions was cytokeratin positive. Moreover, none of the lesions was epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, factor VIII-related antigen, synaptophysin, or Leu-M1 positive. Accordingly, strong positivity for these antibodies in a majority of tumor cells should prompt inclusion of tumor types other than those listed above in the differential diagnosis. Vimentin positivity was seen in a majority of the tumors studied irrespective of histologic type. Scattered tumor cells (< 25%) showed positivity with antibodies to muscle-specific actin and smooth muscle actin in several of the different tumor types studied. No lesions other than lymphoma were leukocyte-common antigen (LCA) positive; all but two lymphomas were LCA positive, while all but one lymphoma were L26 positive. One (lymphoblastic) lymphoma was LCA and L26 negative. S-100, neuron-specific enolase, and Leu-7 did not prove to be specific for "neural-associated" tumors, but rather appeared in some small cell osteosarcomas, Ewing's sarcomas, atypical Ewing's sarcomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, mesenchymal chondrosarcomas, lymphomas, and Askin tumors. Antibody to cell surface antigen HBA71 was positive in three Ewing's sarcomas (two typical and one atypical) and negative in small cell osteosarcoma (three cases), mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (two cases), and lymphoma (one case). While some guidance may be derived from analysis of immunohistochemical staining patterns in a given lesion, the results reported in the present study do not suggest that routine immunohistochemistry alone will permit distinction of these small cell tumors of bone from one another. The value of immunohistochemical studies appears to lie particularly in the use of antibodies to LCA and S-100 protein to distinguish lymphoma and mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, and perhaps antibody to HBA71 to distinguish neural family lesions (such as Ewing's sarcoma), from other small cell tumors, such as small cell osteosarcoma.
AuthorsK Devaney, T N Vinh, D E Sweet
JournalHuman pathology (Hum Pathol) Vol. 24 Issue 11 Pg. 1211-25 (Nov 1993) ISSN: 0046-8177 [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID7503935 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Antigens, Differentiation
  • Desmin
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Mucin-1
  • S100 Proteins
  • Synaptophysin
  • von Willebrand Factor
  • Keratins
  • Antigens, CD45
Topics
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antigens, CD45 (analysis)
  • Antigens, Differentiation (analysis)
  • Bone Neoplasms (chemistry, diagnosis, pathology)
  • Chondrosarcoma, Mesenchymal (chemistry, diagnosis, pathology)
  • Desmin (analysis)
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Keratins (analysis)
  • Lymphoma (chemistry, diagnosis, pathology)
  • Membrane Glycoproteins (analysis)
  • Middle Aged
  • Mucin-1
  • Osteosarcoma (chemistry, diagnosis, pathology)
  • S100 Proteins (analysis)
  • Sarcoma, Ewing (chemistry, diagnosis, pathology)
  • Sarcoma, Small Cell (chemistry, diagnosis, pathology)
  • Synaptophysin (analysis)
  • von Willebrand Factor (analysis)

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