A new class of cardiotonic agents: structure-activity correlations for natural and synthetic analogues of the alkaloid A new class of A new class of cardiotonic agents: structure-activity correlations for natural and synthetic analogues of the alkaloid pumiliotoxin B (8-hydroxy-8-methyl-6-alkylidene-1-azabicyclo[4.3.0]nonanes).

Pumiliotoxin B (PTX-B, 6-(6',7'-dihydroxy-2',5'-dimethyl-(E)-4'-octenylidene)-8-hydroxy-8 -methyl-1- azabicyclo-[4.3.0] nonane) increases the force of contractures of spontaneously beating guinea pig atrial strips by 3- to 5-fold with half-maximal effects at about 3 microM and increases rates of atrial contractions by 2- to 3-fold with half-maximal effects at about 6 microM. The presence of an axial 7-hydroxy substituent (PTX 339A) decreases the efficacy but not the potency of PTX-B as a positive inotropic agent while having only slight effects on activity as a positive chronotropic agent. The presence of an equatorial 7-hydroxy substituent (PTX 339B) greatly decreases efficacy and potency of PTX-B as a positive chronotropic and inotropic agent. Pumiliotoxin A which lacks the side-chain 7'-hydroxy group of PTX-B causes only a 2-fold increase in force of contracture at 54 microM while having minimal effects on rate. The presence of an axial 7-hydroxy substituent (PTX 323B' and 323B", epimeric at the 6'-hydroxy) markedly enhances positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of PTX-A. Another congener, PTX 251D with a 6-(2'-methylhexylidene) side chain, and a synthetic analogue with a 6-(6'-heptenylidene) side chain are cardiac depressants. Both lack hydroxyl groups in the side chain. The presence of an omega-1 hydroxy group in the side chain of PTX 251D yields an alkaloid (267C) with weak positive inotropic effects and minimal chronotropic effects. The presence of an axial 7-hydroxy group in the indolizidine ring of PTX 251D results in a compound (PTX 267A) with very weak positive inotropic effects while retaining the negative chronotropic effects of PTX 251D. A synthetic analogue with a 6-(7'-hydroxyheptylidene) side chain is a cardiac depressant even though it contains a side-chain hydroxyl corresponding in position to the 7'-hydroxyl of the side chain of PTX-B. The positive chronotropic and inotropic effects of pumiliotoxin B are reversed only by relatively high concentrations of the calcium channel blockers nifedipine and verapamil, suggesting that pumiliotoxin B may owe its cardiotonic activities to effects on internal mobilization of calcium.
AuthorsJ W Daly, E T McNeal, L E Overman, D H Ellison
JournalJournal of medicinal chemistry (J Med Chem) Vol. 28 Issue 4 Pg. 482-6 (Apr 1985) ISSN: 0022-2623 [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID3981541 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Alkaloids
  • Cardiotonic Agents
  • Indolizines
  • Piperidines
  • pumiliotoxin B
  • pumiliotoxin A
  • Alkaloids (chemical synthesis, pharmacology)
  • Animals
  • Cardiotonic Agents (pharmacology)
  • Guinea Pigs
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Indolizines
  • Male
  • Myocardial Contraction (drug effects)
  • Piperidines
  • Structure-Activity Relationship

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