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Platelets as effectors in immune and hypersensitivity reactions.

Abstract
IgE receptors have been recently characterized on human blood platelets. These receptors share common properties within the Fc epsilon R2 previously described on macrophages and eosinophils with a Ka of 3 X 10(7) M-1 and a mean number of 600-1,000 binding sites for IgE per platelet. The production of an anti-Fc epsilon R2 monoclonal antibody has allowed the identification on platelet membrane preparations of two major bands of 43-45 and 31 kD. In parasitic infections (schistosomiasis, filariasis) IgE-dependent killing by platelets has been demonstrated. In allergic asthma and in Hymenoptera venom sensitivity patients, IgE-dependent activation of platelets expressed by the release of cytocidal mediators and oxidative burst can be specifically triggered by the corresponding allergen. In aspirin-sensitive asthma, a direct, non-IgE-dependent platelet activation by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been demonstrated. The platelet abnormality apparently involved a defect of the prostaglandin H2 binding to its specific receptor and a possible imbalance in the regulatory functions of the lipoxygenase metabolites. Platelet effector functions have been recently shown to be regulated by T cell factors. A novel suppressive lymphokine (PASL) produced by OKT8 T cell subset inhibits platelet activation and killing whereas IFN-gamma has been identified among T cell factors produced by OKT4+ cells able to trigger platelet activation. These observations open original perspectives into the pathogenesis, the diagnosis and the prevention of allergic and pseudoallergic disorders, and they provide support to the concept of a role for platelets in various immune and hypersensitivity reactions.
AuthorsA Capron, M Joseph, J C Ameisen, M Capron, V Pancré, C Auriault
JournalInternational archives of allergy and applied immunology (Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol) Vol. 82 Issue 3-4 Pg. 307-12 ( 1987) ISSN: 0020-5915 [Print] SWITZERLAND
PMID2952599 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Review)
Chemical References
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • Lymphokines
  • Receptors, Fc
  • Receptors, IgE
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • Immunoglobulin E
Topics
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal (adverse effects)
  • Asthma (chemically induced, immunology)
  • Blood Platelets (immunology, secretion)
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity (immunology)
  • Immunoglobulin E (immunology)
  • Lymphokines (physiology)
  • Rats
  • Receptors, Fc (physiology)
  • Receptors, IgE
  • Receptors, Immunologic (physiology)
  • Schistosomiasis mansoni (immunology)
  • T-Lymphocytes (secretion)

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