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Immunization with a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D: long-term protection and effect of revaccination.

Abstract
Previously we showed that mice immunized with a vaccinia virus vector expressing the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) gene (vaccinia/gD) were protected against both lethal and latent infections with HSV-1 for at least 6 weeks after immunization (K. J. Cremer, M. Mackett, C. Wohlenberg, A. L. Notkins, and B. Moss, Science 228:737-740, 1985). In the experiments described here, we examined long-term immunity to HSV following vaccinia/gD vaccination, the effect of revaccination with vaccinia/gD, and the impact of previous immunity to vaccinia virus on immunization with the gD recombinant. Mice immunized with vaccinia/gD showed 100, 100, and 80% protection against lethal infection with HSV-1 at 18, 44, and 60 weeks postimmunization, respectively. Protection against latent trigeminal ganglionic infection was 70, 50, and 31% at 6, 41, and 60 weeks postvaccination, respectively. To study the effect of reimmunization on antibody levels, mice vaccinated with vaccinia/gD were given a second immunization (booster dose) 3 months after the first. These mice developed a 10-fold increase in neutralizing-antibody titer (221 to 2,934) and demonstrated a significant increase in protection against lethal HSV-1 challenge compared with animals that received only one dose of vaccinia/gD. To determine whether preexisting immunity to vaccinia virus inhibited the response to vaccination with vaccinia/gD virus, mice were immunized with a recombinant vaccinia virus vector expressing antigens from either influenza A or hepatitis B virus and were then immunized (2 to 3 months later) with vaccinia/gD. These mice showed reduced titers of neutralizing antibody to HSV-1 and decreased protection against both lethal and latent infections with HSV-1 compared with animals vaccinated only with vaccinia/gD. We conclude that vaccination with vaccinia/gD produces immunity against HSV-1 that lasts over 1 year and that this immunity can be increased by a booster but that prior immunization with a vaccinia recombinant virus expressing a non-HSV gene reduces the levels of neutralizing antibody and protective immunity against HSV-1 challenge.
AuthorsJ F Rooney, C Wohlenberg, K J Cremer, B Moss, A L Notkins
JournalJournal of virology (J Virol) Vol. 62 Issue 5 Pg. 1530-4 (May 1988) ISSN: 0022-538X [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID2833606 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Viral Envelope Proteins
  • glycoprotein D, Human herpesvirus 1
Topics
  • Animals
  • Female
  • Herpes Simplex (prevention & control)
  • Immunization
  • Immunization, Secondary
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Recombination, Genetic
  • Simplexvirus (immunology)
  • Time Factors
  • Trigeminal Ganglion (microbiology)
  • Vaccinia virus (genetics)
  • Viral Envelope Proteins (genetics)

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