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Diagnostic Accuracy of Tests for Polyuria in Lithium-Treated Patients.

Abstract
In lithium-treated patients, polyuria increases the risk of dehydration and lithium toxicity. If detected early, it is reversible. Despite its prevalence and associated morbidity in clinical practice, it remains underrecognized and therefore undertreated. The 24-hour urine collection is limited by its convenience and practicality. This study explores the diagnostic accuracy of alternative tests such as questionnaires on subjective polyuria, polydipsia, nocturia (dichotomous and ordinal responses), early morning urine sample osmolality (EMUO), and fluid intake record (FIR). This is a cross-sectional study of 179 lithium-treated patients attending a general adult and an old age psychiatry service. Participants completed the tests after completing an accurate 24-hour urine collection. The diagnostic accuracy of the individual tests was explored using the appropriate statistical techniques. Seventy-nine participants completed all of the tests. Polydipsia severity, EMUO, and FIR significantly differentiated the participants with polyuria (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.646, 0.760, and 0.846, respectively). Of the tests investigated, the FIR made the largest significant change in the probability that a patient experiences polyuria (<2000 mL/24 hours; interval likelihood ratio, 0.18 and >3500 mL/24 hours; interval likelihood ratio, 14). Symptomatic questioning, EMUO, and an FIR could be used in clinical practice to inform the prescriber of the probability that a lithium-treated patient is experiencing polyuria.
AuthorsJames Conor Kinahan, Aoife NiChorcorain, Sean Cunningham, Aideen Freyne, Colm Cooney, Siobhan Barry, Brendan D Kelly
JournalJournal of clinical psychopharmacology (J Clin Psychopharmacol) Vol. 35 Issue 4 Pg. 434-41 (Aug 2015) ISSN: 1533-712X [Electronic] United States
PMID26075489 (Publication Type: Journal Article)

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