Gonadal malignancy risk and prophylactic gonadectomy in disorders of sexual development.

Disorders of sex development (DSD) are a generic definition including any problem noted at birth where the genitalia are atypical in relation to the chromosomes or gonads. The most important clinical problems in DSD comprise physical and psychological disturbances and the risk of gonadal tumor development. Germ cell tumor risk is lowest (<5%) in patients with defects in androgene action or synthesis (such as complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, 5α-reductase deficiency), whereas the highest risk (15%-60%) is observed in 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. The presence of Y chromosomal material in the karyotype increases the risk for the development of gonadal tumors. The reported age of tumor development varies based on the etiology of DSD (gonadal dysgenesis, androgen insensitivity syndrome, androgen synthesis defects, mixed gonadal dysgenesis, etc.). In the past, early gonadectomy was recommended for all cases of 46,XY DSD, however, according to current approaches, gonadal tumor risk is predicted based on the molecular diagnosis and the timing of the gonadectomy depends on the result of molecular analysis. Until now, optimal protocol in the management of DSD is still controversial. In addition to that, safe and well-accepted guidelines are needed. There is limited number of prospective studies on timing of a gonadectomy in childhood and adolescence. Therefore, evidence-based data on timing and indications of gonadectomy in patients with DSD are needed. In this review, recent data regarding gonadal malignancy risk in DSD and recommendations on timing of gonadectomy are presented.
AuthorsAyhan Abacı, Gönül Çatlı, Merih Berberoğlu
JournalJournal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM (J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab) Vol. 28 Issue 9-10 Pg. 1019-27 (Sep 2015) ISSN: 2191-0251 [Electronic] Germany
PMID25879315 (Publication Type: Journal Article)

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