Red cell alloimmunisation in regularly transfused beta thalassemia patients in Pakistan.

In Pakistan routine blood group typing of thalassemia patients identifies ABO and Rh(D) antigens only. Therefore, other antigen incompatibilities between blood donor and blood recipient may cause alloimmunisation.
The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of alloimmunisation and to evaluate the risk factors associated with its development in beta (β)-thalassemia patients receiving regular blood transfusions.
In total 162 β thalassemia patients were included in this study. An extended red cell antigen panel was performed to detect antibodies. Patients received red cell concentrates, which were matched for ABO and Rh(D) antigens. Clinical and laboratory data were collected and analysed to estimate the frequency of alloantibodies and the factors influencing immunisation in patients on regular blood transfusion.
The median age of patients was 6·7 (range: 0·5-25) years. A total of 14 (8·6%) patients developed alloantibodies against red cell antigens. The most frequently occurring alloantibodies was anti-E (2·5%), anti-K (1·8%), anti-e (1·2%) and anti-D (0·6%). Five (3·1%) patients developed more than one red blood cell (RBC) alloantibody. Age at first transfusion in alloimmunised patients was 1·22 ± 0·87 years. The frequency of blood transfusion in alloimmunised patients was 23 ± 8·81 days and in those without alloimmunisation was 31·8 ± 16 days (p = 0·02). Logistic regression analysis showed no independent risk factor associated with alloimmunisation.
The frequency of transfusion was increased in patients who developed alloantibodies. Typing patients and donors to match for Rh and Kell antigens would prevent more than 90% of RBC alloantibodies and reduce the frequency of transfusion in thalassemia patients.
AuthorsU Zaidi, M Borhany, S Ansari, S Parveen, S Boota, I Shamim, D Zahid, T Shamsi
JournalTransfusion medicine (Oxford, England) (Transfus Med) Vol. 25 Issue 2 Pg. 106-10 (Apr 2015) ISSN: 1365-3148 [Electronic] England
PMID25870030 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Copyright© 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

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