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Impacts of humanized mouse models on the investigation of HIV-1 infection: illuminating the roles of viral accessory proteins in vivo.

Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes four accessory genes: vif, vpu, vpr, and nef. Recent investigations using in vitro cell culture systems have shed light on the roles of these HIV-1 accessory proteins, Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef, in counteracting, modulating, and evading various cellular factors that are responsible for anti-HIV-1 intrinsic immunity. However, since humans are the exclusive target for HIV-1 infection, conventional animal models are incapable of mimicking the dynamics of HIV-1 infection in vivo. Moreover, the effects of HIV-1 accessory proteins on viral infection in vivo remain unclear. To elucidate the roles of HIV-1 accessory proteins in the dynamics of viral infection in vivo, humanized mouse models, in which the mice are xenotransplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells, has been utilized. This review describes the current knowledge of the roles of HIV-1 accessory proteins in viral infection, replication, and pathogenicity in vivo, which are revealed by the studies using humanized mouse models.
AuthorsEri Yamada, Rokusuke Yoshikawa, Yusuke Nakano, Naoko Misawa, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato
JournalViruses (Viruses) Vol. 7 Issue 3 Pg. 1373-90 (Mar 2015) ISSN: 1999-4915 [Electronic] Switzerland
PMID25807049 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review)
Chemical References
  • Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins
Topics
  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • HIV Infections (pathology)
  • HIV-1 (physiology)
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Humans
  • Mice, SCID
  • Transplantation, Heterologous
  • Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins (metabolism)

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