(RS)-glucoraphanin purified from Tuscan black kale and bioactivated with myrosinase enzyme protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

Ischemic stroke is the result of a transient or permanent reduction in cerebral blood flow caused by the occlusion of a cerebral artery via an embolus or local thrombosis. Restoration of blood supply to ischemic tissues can cause additional damage known as reperfusion injury that can be more damaging than the initial ischemia. This study was aimed to examine the possible neuroprotective role of (RS)-glucoraphanin, bioactivated with myrosinase enzyme (bioactive RS-GRA), in an experimental rat model of brain ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). RS-GRA is a thiosaccharidic compound found in Brassicaceae, notably in Tuscan black kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala sabellica). The mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of bioactive RS-GRA on inflammatory and apoptotic responses, induced by carotid artery occlusion in rats, was carefully examined. Cerebral I/R was induced by the clamping of carotid artery for 1h, followed by 40 min of reperfusion through the release of clamp. Our results have clearly shown that administration of bioactive RS-GRA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) 15 min after ischemia, significantly reduces proinflammatory parameters, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase expression (iNOS), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), nuclear factor (NF)-kB traslocation as well as the triggering of the apoptotic pathway (TUNEL and Caspase 3 expression). Taken together our data have shown that bioactive RS-GRA possesses beneficial neuroprotective effects in counteracting the brain damage associated to I/R. Therefore, bioactive RS-GRA, could be a useful treatment in the cerebral ischemic stroke.
AuthorsSabrina Giacoppo, Maria Galuppo, Renato Iori, Gina Rosalinda De Nicola, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
JournalFitoterapia (Fitoterapia) Vol. 99 Pg. 166-77 (Dec 2014) ISSN: 1873-6971 [Electronic] Netherlands
PMID25281776 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
CopyrightCopyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chemical References
  • Glucosinolates
  • I-kappa B Proteins
  • Imidoesters
  • NF-kappa B
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • glucoraphanin
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
  • NF-kappaB inhibitor alpha
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Nos2 protein, rat
  • Glycoside Hydrolases
  • thioglucosidase
  • Casp3 protein, rat
  • Caspase 3
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis (drug effects)
  • Brain Ischemia (drug therapy)
  • Brassica (chemistry)
  • Caspase 3 (metabolism)
  • Glucosinolates (chemistry, pharmacology)
  • Glycoside Hydrolases (metabolism)
  • I-kappa B Proteins (metabolism)
  • Imidoesters (chemistry, pharmacology)
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (metabolism)
  • Male
  • NF-kappa B (metabolism)
  • Neuroprotective Agents (chemistry, pharmacology)
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II (metabolism)
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Reperfusion Injury (drug therapy)

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