Body composition in offspring of New Zealand women: ethnic and gender differences at age 1-3 years in 2005-2009.

In multi-ethnic New Zealand the prevalence of obesity and diabetes is increasing and varies by ethnic group.
This study explored ethnic and gender differences in body composition in offspring of women treated for gestational diabetes in the metformin in gestational diabetes (MiG) trial.
Total and regional body composition measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry were investigated in European, Indian, Polynesian and "Other" children aged 2 years (48 boys; 56 girls).
By ethnicity, boys were not different by height or weight. Compared with European girls, Indian girls weighed less (2.3 ± 0.58 kg) and Polynesian (1.13 ± 0.53 kg) more, but percentage body fat was not different. Adjusted for age, height and weight boys had less total and appendicular fat and higher abdominal fat mass and total bone mineral density than girls (p < 0.001). Adjusted for age, weight and height Indian boys had more fat in the central and abdominal regions and less total lean mass than European boys (p < 0.05).
These measurements provide early evidence for gender and ethnic differences in the distribution of fat and might help identify who is most likely to benefit from intervention in the first few years of life to reduce risk of chronic disease including diabetes.
AuthorsElaine C Rush, Victor Obolonkin, Malcolm Battin, Trecia Wouldes, Janet Rowan
JournalAnnals of human biology (Ann Hum Biol) Vol. 42 Issue 5 Pg. 498-503 (Sep 2015) ISSN: 1464-5033 [Electronic] England
PMID25248609 (Publication Type: Journal Article)

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