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Sublingual immunotherapy as an alternative to induce protection against acute respiratory infections.

Abstract
Sublingual route has been widely used to deliver small molecules into the bloodstream and to modulate the immune response at different sites. It has been shown to effectively induce humoral and cellular responses at systemic and mucosal sites, namely the lungs and urogenital tract. Sublingual vaccination can promote protection against infections at the lower and upper respiratory tract; it can also promote tolerance to allergens and ameliorate asthma symptoms. Modulation of lung's immune response by sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is safer than direct administration of formulations by intranasal route because it does not require delivery of potentially harmful molecules directly into the airways. In contrast to intranasal delivery, side effects involving brain toxicity or facial paralysis are not promoted by SLIT. The immune mechanisms underlying SLIT remain elusive and its use for the treatment of acute lung infections has not yet been explored. Thus, development of appropriate animal models of SLIT is needed to further explore its potential advantages. This work shows how to perform sublingual administration of therapeutic agents in mice to evaluate their ability to protect against acute pneumococcal pneumonia. Technical aspects of mouse handling during sublingual inoculation, precise identification of sublingual mucosa, draining lymph nodes and isolation of tissues, bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs are illustrated. Protocols for single cell suspension preparation for FACS analysis are described in detail. Other downstream applications for the analysis of the immune response are discussed. Technical aspects of the preparation of Streptococcus pneumoniae inoculum and intranasal challenge of mice are also explained. SLIT is a simple technique that allows screening of candidate molecules to modulate lungs' immune response. Parameters affecting the success of SLIT are related to molecular size, susceptibility to degradation and stability of highly concentrated formulations.
AuthorsNatalia Muñoz-Wolf, Analía Rial, José M Saavedra, José A Chabalgoity
JournalJournal of visualized experiments : JoVE (J Vis Exp) Issue 90 ( 2014) ISSN: 1940-087X [Electronic] United States
PMID25225769 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Video-Audio Media)
Chemical References
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines
Topics
  • Administration, Sublingual
  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Immunity, Innate (immunology)
  • Lung (immunology)
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines (administration & dosage, immunology)
  • Pneumonia, Pneumococcal (immunology, microbiology, prevention & control)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (immunology)

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