Renalase: its role as a cytokine, and an update on its association with type 1 diabetes and ischemic stroke.

Remarkable progress has been achieved over the past 2 years in understanding the cellular actions of renalase, its pathophysiology and potential therapeutic utility.
There has been a paradigm shift in our thinking about the mechanisms underlying the cellular actions of renalase. We now understand that, independent of its enzymatic properties, renalase functions as a signaling molecule, a cytokine that interacts with a yet-to-be identified plasma membrane receptor(s) to activate protein kinase B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These signaling properties are critical to its cytoprotective effects. New information regarding renalase's enzymatic function as an α-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase/anomerase will be reviewed. Lastly, we will discuss the association of certain single nucleotide polymorphisms in the renalase gene with type 1 diabetes and with ischemic stroke, and the clinical implications of these findings.
The consistent association of renalase single nucleotide polymorphisms and the development of type 1 diabetes is a great interest particularly because we now understand that renalase functions as a cytokine. Future work on renalase should focus on exploring the identity of its receptor(s), and its potential role as an immune modulator.
AuthorsXiaojia Guo, Ling Wang, Heino Velazquez, Robert Safirstein, Gary V Desir
JournalCurrent opinion in nephrology and hypertension (Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens) Vol. 23 Issue 5 Pg. 513-8 (Sep 2014) ISSN: 1473-6543 [Electronic] England
PMID24992568 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S., Review)
Chemical References
  • Cytokines
  • Monoamine Oxidase
  • renalase
  • Dopamine
  • Animals
  • Brain Ischemia (enzymology, genetics)
  • Cytokines (metabolism)
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 (enzymology, genetics)
  • Dopamine (metabolism)
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Monoamine Oxidase (metabolism)
  • Phenotype
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Signal Transduction
  • Stroke (enzymology)

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