Inflammasome activation is reactive oxygen species dependent and mediates irinotecan-induced mucositis through IL-1β and IL-18 in mice.

Irinotecan is a useful chemotherapeutic for the treatment of various cancers. Irinotecan treatment is associated with mucositis, which clearly limits the use of the drug. Mechanisms that account for mucositis are only partially known. This study assessed mechanisms and the role of inflammasome activation in irinotecan-induced mucositis. Mucositis in mice was induced by irinotecan injection in C57BL/6 wild-type, gp91phox(-/-), il-18(-/-), casp-1(-/-), and asc(-/-) mice once a day for 4 consecutive days. In some experiments, mice received apocynin to inhibit NADPH oxidase (NOX), IL-1 receptor antagonist, or IL-18 binding protein to prevent activation of IL-1 and IL-18 receptors, respectively. Mice were euthanized 7 days after the beginning of irinotecan treatment, and small intestines were collected for analysis. Irinotecan treatment resulted in increased IL-1β and IL-18 production in ileum and NOX-2-dependent oxidative stress. gp91phox(-/-) and apocynin-treated mice had diminished oxidative stress and less severe mucositis. Furthermore, treatment with apocynin decreased caspase-1 activation and IL-1β and IL-18 production in the ileum. asc(-/-) and casp-1(-/-) mice also had less intestinal injury and decreased IL-1β and IL-18 production. Finally, both the absence of IL-18 and IL-1β resulted in reduced inflammatory response and attenuated intestinal injury. NOX-2-derived oxidative stress mediates inflammasome activation and inflammasome-dependent production of IL-1β and IL-18, which mediate tissue injury during irinotecan-induced mucositis in mice.
AuthorsRaquel D N Arifa, Mila F M Madeira, Talles P de Paula, Renata L Lima, Livia D Tavares, Zélia Menezes-Garcia, Caio T Fagundes, Milene A Rachid, Bernhard Ryffel, Dario S Zamboni, Mauro M Teixeira, Danielle G Souza
JournalThe American journal of pathology (Am J Pathol) Vol. 184 Issue 7 Pg. 2023-34 (Jul 2014) ISSN: 1525-2191 [Electronic] United States
PMID24952429 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
CopyrightCopyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chemical References
  • Inflammasomes
  • Interleukin-18
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • irinotecan
  • Cybb protein, mouse
  • NADPH Oxidase
  • Caspase 1
  • Camptothecin
  • Animals
  • Camptothecin (adverse effects, analogs & derivatives)
  • Caspase 1 (metabolism)
  • Ileum (metabolism, pathology)
  • Inflammasomes (metabolism)
  • Interleukin-18 (metabolism)
  • Interleukin-1beta (metabolism)
  • Male
  • Membrane Glycoproteins (metabolism)
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mucositis (chemically induced, metabolism)
  • NADPH Oxidase (metabolism)
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Reactive Oxygen Species (metabolism)

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