Polyaspartic acid functionalized gold nanoparticles for tumor targeted doxorubicin delivery.

In this paper, we present polyaspartic acid, a biodegradable polymer as a reducing and functionalizing agent for the synthesis of doxorubicin loaded gold nanoparticles by a green process. Gold nanoparticles were stable to electrolytes and pH. Secondary amino groups of polyaspartic acid enabled reduction of gold chloride to form gold nanoparticles of size 55 +/-10 nm, with face centered cubic crystalline structure as confirmed by UV, TEM, SAED and XRD studies. Cationic doxorubicin was readily loaded onto anionic polyaspartic acid gold nanoparticles by ionic complexation. Fluorescence studies confirmed doxorubicin loading while FTIR spectra confirmed ionic complexation. Doxorubicin loading onto polyaspartic acid gold nanoparticles was studied at doxorubicin/polyaspartic acid molar ratios 1:10 to 1:1. As the molar ratio tended to unity, although loading up to 60% was achieved, colloidal instability resulted and is attributed to effective covering of negative charges of polyaspartic acid. Stable doxorubicin loaded polyaspartic acid gold nanoparticles of 105 +/- 15.1 nm with doxorubicin loading of 23.85% w/w and zeta potential value of -28 +/- 0.77 mV were obtained at doxorubicin/polyaspartic acid molar ratio 1:10. Higher doxorubicin release rate from the doxorubicin loaded polyaspartic acid gold nanoparticles in an acid medium (i.e., pH 5.5) as compared to that in pH 7.4 and deionized water is a desirable characteristic for tumor targeted delivery. Enhanced cytotoxicity and 3 fold higher uptake of doxorubicin loaded polyaspartic acid gold nanoparticles as compared to doxorubicin solution were seen in MCF-7 breast cancer cells while polyaspartic acid gold nanoparticles revealed no cytotoxicity confirming safety. Prominent regression in tumor size in-vivo in fibrosarcoma tumor induced mouse model was observed upto 59 days with doxorubicin loaded polyaspartic acid gold nanoparticles while doxorubicin solution treated mice showed regrowth beyond 23rd day. Moreover, a decrease of body weight of 35% indicating severe toxicity with doxorubicin solution as compared to only 20% with gradual recovery after day 30 in case of doxorubicin loaded polyaspartic acid gold nanoparticles confirmed their lower toxicity and enhanced efficacy.
AuthorsSameera V Khandekar, M G Kulkarni, Padma V Devarajan
JournalJournal of biomedical nanotechnology (J Biomed Nanotechnol) Vol. 10 Issue 1 Pg. 143-53 (Jan 2014) ISSN: 1550-7033 [Print] United States
PMID24724506 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Drug Carriers
  • Peptides
  • polyaspartate
  • Gold
  • Doxorubicin
  • Animals
  • Doxorubicin (administration & dosage, pharmacokinetics)
  • Drug Carriers (chemistry)
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Gold (chemistry)
  • Humans
  • MCF-7 Cells
  • Male
  • Metal Nanoparticles (chemistry)
  • Mice
  • Neoplasms (drug therapy, metabolism)
  • Peptides (chemistry)

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