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Triggering of erythrocyte cell membrane scrambling by salinomycin.

Abstract
Salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic effective against a variety of pathogens, has been shown to trigger apoptosis of cancer cells and cancer stem cells. The substance is thus considered for the treatment of malignancy. Salinomycin compromises tumour cell survival at least in part by interference with mitochondrial function. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria but may undergo apoptosis-like suicidal cell death or eryptosis, which is characterized by scrambling of the cell membrane with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Signalling involved in the triggering of eryptosis includes activation of oxidant-sensitive Ca(2+) permeable cation channels with subsequent increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) activity ([Ca(2+)]i). This study explored whether salinomycin stimulates eryptosis. Phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes were identified by measurement of annexin-V binding, cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, haemolysis determined from haemoglobin release, [Ca(2+)]i quantified utilizing Fluo3-fluorescence and oxidative stress from 2',7' dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence in flow cytometry. A 48-hr exposure to salinomycin (5-100 nM) was followed by a significant increase in Fluo3-fluorescence, DCFDA fluorescence and annexin-V binding, as well as a significant decrease in forward scatter (at 5-10 nM, but not at 50 and 100 nM). The annexin-V binding after salinomycin treatment was significantly blunted but not abrogated in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca(2+) or in the presence of antioxidant n-acetyl cysteine (1 mM). Salinomycin triggers cell membrane scrambling, an effect at least partially due to oxidative stress and entry of extracellular Ca(2+).
AuthorsRosi Bissinger, Abaid Malik, Kashif Jilani, Florian Lang
JournalBasic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology (Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol) Vol. 115 Issue 5 Pg. 396-402 (Nov 2014) ISSN: 1742-7843 [Electronic] England
PMID24717091 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Copyright© 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).
Chemical References
  • Annexin A5
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Phosphatidylserines
  • Pyrans
  • salinomycin
  • Calcium
Topics
  • Annexin A5 (metabolism)
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents (administration & dosage, pharmacology)
  • Calcium (metabolism)
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Erythrocyte Membrane (drug effects, metabolism)
  • Erythrocytes (drug effects, metabolism)
  • Hemolysis (drug effects)
  • Humans
  • Oxidative Stress (drug effects)
  • Phosphatidylserines (metabolism)
  • Pyrans (administration & dosage, pharmacology)

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