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Hepatic gluconeogenesis is enhanced by phosphatidic acid which remains uninhibited by insulin in lipodystrophic Agpat2-/- mice.

Abstract
In this study we examined the role of phosphatidic acid (PA) in hepatic glucose production (HGP) and development of hepatic insulin resistance in mice that lack 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2). Liver lysophosphatidic acid and PA levels were increased ∼2- and ∼5-fold, respectively, in male Agpat2(-/-) mice compared with wild type mice. In the absence of AGPAT2, the liver can synthesize PAs by activating diacylglycerol kinase or phospholipase D, both of which were elevated in the livers of Agpat2(-/-) mice. We found that PAs C16:0/18:1 and C18:1/20:4 enhanced HGP in primary WT hepatocytes, an effect that was further enhanced in primary hepatocytes from Agpat2(-/-) mice. Lysophosphatidic acids C16:0 and C18:1 failed to increase HGP in primary hepatocytes. The activation of HGP was accompanied by an up-regulation of the key gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. This activation was suppressed by insulin in the WT primary hepatocytes but not in the Agpat2(-/-) primary hepatocytes. Thus, the lack of normal insulin signaling in Agpat2(-/-) livers allows unrestricted PA-induced gluconeogenesis significantly contributing to the development of hyperglycemia in these mice.
AuthorsShireesha Sankella, Abhimanyu Garg, Jay D Horton, Anil K Agarwal
JournalThe Journal of biological chemistry (J Biol Chem) Vol. 289 Issue 8 Pg. 4762-77 (Feb 21 2014) ISSN: 1083-351X [Electronic] United States
PMID24425876 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.)
Chemical References
  • Insulin
  • Lysophospholipids
  • Phosphatidic Acids
  • Phosphothreonine
  • lysophosphatidic acid
  • Acyltransferases
  • 1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase
  • 2-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
Topics
  • 1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase (deficiency, metabolism)
  • Acyltransferases (deficiency, metabolism)
  • Animals
  • Biosynthetic Pathways
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Female
  • Gluconeogenesis
  • Hepatocytes (metabolism)
  • Insulin (metabolism)
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Lipodystrophy (metabolism, pathology)
  • Liver (enzymology, metabolism)
  • Lysophospholipids (metabolism)
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Models, Biological
  • Phosphatidic Acids (metabolism)
  • Phosphorylation
  • Phosphothreonine (metabolism)
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt (metabolism)
  • Signal Transduction

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