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Muscle wasting in hemodialysis patients: new therapeutic strategies for resolving an old problem.

Abstract
Muscle wasting has long been recognized as a major clinical problem in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In addition to its impact on quality of life, muscle wasting has been proven to be associated with increased mortality rates. Identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle wasting in HD patients provides opportunities to resolve this clinical problem. Several signaling pathways and humeral factors have been reported to be involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of muscle wasting in HD patients, including ubiquitin-proteasome system, caspase-3, insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling, endogenous glucocorticoids, metabolic acidosis, inflammation, and sex hormones. Targeting the aforementioned crucial signaling and molecules to suppress protein degradation and augment muscle strength has been extensively investigated in HD patients. In addition to exercise training, administration of megestrol acetate has been proven to be effective in improving anorexia and muscle wasting in HD patients. Correction of metabolic acidosis through sodium bicarbonate supplements can decrease muscle protein degradation and hormone therapy with nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase muscle mass. Although thiazolidinedione has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, its role in the treatment of muscle wasting remains unclear. This review paper focuses on the molecular pathways and potential new therapeutic approaches to muscle wasting in HD patients.
AuthorsChun-Ting Chen, Shih-Hua Lin, Jin-Shuen Chen, Yu-Juei Hsu
JournalTheScientificWorldJournal (ScientificWorldJournal) Vol. 2013 Pg. 643954 ( 2013) ISSN: 1537-744X [Electronic] England
PMID24382946 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review)
Chemical References
  • Muscle Proteins
  • Megestrol Acetate
Topics
  • Exercise Therapy (methods)
  • Humans
  • Megestrol Acetate (therapeutic use)
  • Models, Biological
  • Muscle Proteins (metabolism)
  • Muscle, Skeletal (drug effects, physiopathology)
  • Muscular Atrophy (etiology, physiopathology, prevention & control)
  • Renal Dialysis (adverse effects)
  • Signal Transduction (drug effects)

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