Experimental models of chronic subdural hematoma.

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical problem. Most studies of pathogenesis and treatment involve humans. Advances in understanding of human diseases may be made using animal models. We reviewed all animal models of CSDH and report here their results, conclusions and limitations in order to set a baseline upon which further advanced experimental work related to this disease can be made.
PubMed, Medline, Embase and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched with no time limits using the keyword 'chronic subdural hematoma' and MeSH term 'hematoma, subdural, chronic'. The authors reviewed all papers written related to this disease and selected all publications involving animals. There were no other restrictions. The findings and conclusions of the papers are summarized here. No formal analysis was done because of the variation in species used, methods for induction of CSDH, times of assessment and reporting of results.
Attempts to create CSDH have been made in mice, rats, cats, dogs and monkeys. Methods include injection or surgical implantation of clotted blood or various other blood products and mixtures into the potential subdural space or the subcutaneous space. No intracranial model produced a progressively expanding CSDH. Transient hematoma expansion with liquification could be produced by subcutaneous injections in some models. Spontaneous subdural blood collections were found after creation of hydrocephalus in mice by systemic injection of the neurotoxin, 6-aminonicotinamide. The histology of the hematoma membranes in several models resembles the appearance in humans. None of the models has been replicated since its first description.
We did not find a report of a reproducible, well-described animal model of human CSDH.
AuthorsJosephine A D'Abbondanza, R Loch Macdonald
JournalNeurological research (Neurol Res) Vol. 36 Issue 2 Pg. 176-88 (Feb 2014) ISSN: 1743-1328 [Electronic] England
PMID24172841 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review)
  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic (etiology, physiopathology, therapy)
  • Humans

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