Identification of human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the hepatic and intestinal biotransformation of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol.

20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (aPPD), a ginseng sapogenin, has been shown to be a promising anti-cancer compound and anti-depressant agent. Although the bacterial biotransformation of ginsenosides has been studied thoroughly, few have reported on the cytochrome P450 (P450) mediated metabolism of aPPD. Taken orally, aPPD must first undergo absorption and metabolism in the intestine before further metabolism in the liver. The present study investigated the comparative biotransformation profile of aPPD in human intestinal microsomes (HIM) and human liver microsomes (HLM) and characterized the human P450 enzymes involved in aPPD metabolism. Three major monooxygenated metabolites and five minor dioxygenated metabolites were identified as the predominant products in aPPD incubations with HIM and HLM using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Reaction phenotyping studies were performed with a panel of specific P450 chemical inhibitors, antibody inhibition and human recombinant P450 enzymes. Ketoconazole, a CYP3A inhibitor, blocked the formation of oxygenated metabolites of aPPD in both HIM and HLM in a concentration dependent manner. Among the human recombinant P450 enzymes assayed, CYP3A4 exhibited the highest activity towards aPPD oxidative metabolite formation, followed by CYP3A5. In summary, the results have shown that aPPD is extensively metabolized by HIM and the metabolite profile following in vitro incubations is similar in HIM and HLM. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 isoforms are the predominant enzymes responsible for oxygenation of aPPD in HIM and HLM. The characterization of aPPD as a CYP3A substrate may facilitate better prediction of drug-herb interactions when aPPD is taken concomitantly with other therapeutic agents.
AuthorsNga Ting Colette Chiu, Emma S Tomlinson Guns, Hans Adomat, William Jia, Subrata Deb
JournalBiopharmaceutics & drug disposition (Biopharm Drug Dispos) Vol. 35 Issue 2 Pg. 104-18 (Mar 2014) ISSN: 1099-081X [Electronic] England
PMID24151189 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
CopyrightCopyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chemical References
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Isoenzymes
  • Sapogenins
  • protopanaxadiol
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Biotransformation
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors (pharmacology)
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System (metabolism)
  • Humans
  • Intestines (metabolism)
  • Isoenzymes (metabolism)
  • Liver (metabolism)
  • Microsomes (metabolism)
  • Sapogenins (pharmacokinetics)

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