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18F-FDG PET/CT for detection of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: tumour-to-liver ratio is superior to an SUVmax cut-off.

AbstractOBJECTIVES:
To evaluate the usefulness of normalising intra-tumour tracer accumulation on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to reference tissue uptake for characterisation of peripheral nerve sheath tumours (PNSTs) in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) compared with the established maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) cut-off of >3.5.
METHODS:
Forty-nine patients underwent FDG PET/CT. Intra-tumour tracer uptake (SUVmax) was normalised to three different reference tissues (tumour-to-liver, tumour-to-muscle and tumour-to-fat ratios). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used out to assess the diagnostic performance. Histopathology and follow-up served as the reference standard.
RESULTS:
Intra-tumour tracer uptake correlated significantly with liver uptake (rs= 0.58, P = 0.016). On ROC analysis, the optimum threshold for tumour-to-liver ratio was >2.6 (AUC = 0.9735). Both the SUVmax cut-off value of >3.5 and a tumour-to-liver ratio >2.6 provided a sensitivity of 100 %, but specificity was significantly higher for the latter (90.3% vs 79.8%; P = 0.013).
CONCLUSIONS:
In patients with NF1, quantitative (18)F-FDG PET imaging may identify malignant change in neurofibromas with high accuracy. Specificity could be significantly increased by using the tumour-to-liver ratio. The authors recommend further evaluation of a tumour-to-liver ratio cut-off value of >2.6 for diagnostic intervention planning.
KEY POINTS:
• (18)F-FDG PET/CT is used for detecting malignancy in PNSTs in NF1 patients • An SUV max cut-off value may give false-positive results for benign plexiform neurofibromas • Specificity can be significantly increased using a tumour-to-liver ratio.
AuthorsJohannes Salamon, Simon Veldhoen, Ivayla Apostolova, Peter Bannas, Jin Yamamura, Jochen Herrmann, Reinhard E Friedrich, Gerhard Adam, Victor F Mautner, Thorsten Derlin
JournalEuropean radiology (Eur Radiol) Vol. 24 Issue 2 Pg. 405-12 (Feb 2014) ISSN: 1432-1084 [Electronic] Germany
PMID24097302 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Radiopharmaceuticals
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
Topics
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 (pharmacokinetics)
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Liver (metabolism)
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscle, Skeletal (metabolism)
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Nerve Sheath Neoplasms (complications, diagnosis, metabolism)
  • Neurofibromatosis 1 (complications, diagnosis, metabolism)
  • Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms (complications, diagnosis, metabolism)
  • Positron-Emission Tomography (methods)
  • ROC Curve
  • Radiopharmaceuticals (pharmacokinetics)
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed (methods)
  • Young Adult

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