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Dietary carbohydrate dictates development of Type 2 diabetes in the Nile rat.

Abstract
Amount and type of dietary carbohydrate (CHO), as well as the CHO:fat ratio, are thought to be critical for both the rate of development and severity of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, these nutritional considerations were examined in the previously described "spontaneous" model of diabetes and metabolic syndrome, the Nile rat. Weanling male Nile rats (n=92) were fed semipurified diets, modifying glycemic index and load by changing the amount of fiber or altering the CHO:fat ratio. Random and fasting blood glucose and body weight were assessed, and diabetes was characterized in terms of blood glucose, relevant plasma and liver parameters, food and water intake and terminal organ weights. Nile rats fed with hiCHO became more hyperglycemic than rats fed with modCHO (P<.05), while loCHO and hiCHO+hiFiber rats remained essentially normoglycemic. Liver lipid and glycogen accumulation was associated with severe hyperlipemia in diabetic rats, analogous to metabolic syndrome in humans. Advanced diabetes was linked to liver and kidney damage and elevated blood urea nitrogen with weight loss. Dispersing dietary CHO by fiber or replacing it by moderate fat (reducing the glycemic index and load) delayed the onset of diabetes but did not prevent signs of insulin resistance. A very low content of dietary CHO (high fat) seemed to prevent even these early indicators of insulin resistance. Thus, the Nile rat represents a novel CHO-sensitive model for study of Type 2 diabetes that reliably follows the course of disease in humans.
AuthorsJulia Bolsinger, Andrzej Pronczuk, K C Hayes
JournalThe Journal of nutritional biochemistry (J Nutr Biochem) Vol. 24 Issue 11 Pg. 1945-52 (Nov 2013) ISSN: 1873-4847 [Electronic] United States
PMID24070602 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Copyright© 2013.
Chemical References
  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
Topics
  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose (metabolism)
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 (physiopathology)
  • Dietary Carbohydrates (administration & dosage, metabolism)
  • Dietary Fats (administration & dosage)
  • Dietary Fiber (administration & dosage)
  • Hyperlipidemias (etiology)
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Male
  • Rats

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