Treatment of spontaneous intradural vertebral artery dissections.

Spontaneous intradural vertebral artery dissections may cause subarachnoid hemorrhage and often result in devastating damage. Increased use of noninvasive imaging studies has allowed larger numbers of patients to be diagnosed. In addition, intracranial vertebral artery dissection tends to induce multiple lesions affecting both intracranial vertebral arteries recurrently. Although unruptured dissections in this area usually have a benign nature, some authors have reported on the incidence of rupture from this lesion. Once hemorrhage from a dissecting vessel wall has occurred, it needs to be treated in the acute phase because of the high risk of rebleeding resulting in high morbidity and mortality. From December 2004 to July 2010, we managed 47 patients with spontaneous vertebral artery dissection, 31 patients were ruptured and 16 were unruptured. All patients who suffered from subarachnoid hemorrhage were treated with endovascular procedures. Most of the patients with unruptured dissection received medical therapy, but if the aneurysmal dilatation persisted or grew, surgical interventions were performed. Stenting with or without coils was deployed for 13 patients with posterior inferior cerebellar artery involvement at the site of dissection and/or were affected on the dominant side. In some patients, stenting was performed even if they were in the acute phase. For other ruptured patients, internal coil trappings were performed. Six patients died due to severe initial subarachnoid hemorrhage and one patient, who underwent stent deployment with coils for the dominant vertebral artery, with bilateral dissection continuing to the basilar artery died due to rerupture while the next additional coiling was planning. There were two cases of complications related to the intervention. During the follow-up period no bleeding occurred in any of the patients except for the previously mentioned patient. In conclusion, internal coil trapping or stent placement with or without coils was effective in preventing rebleeding of ruptured vertebral artery dissection. If the dissection is unruptured, it is necessary to detect the risk of bleeding with careful watching and when progress appears to be made, patients should be treated promptly. Stent-assisted therapy for preserving the patency of the parent artery and major branches is a promising treatment for vertebral artery dissection, even in the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, the risk of acute rerupture and recurrence remains even with the porous stent placement with or without coils.
AuthorsT Nakazawa, Y Takeichi, T Yokoi, T Fukami, J Jito, N Nitta, K Takagi, K Nozaki
JournalThe neuroradiology journal (Neuroradiol J) Vol. 24 Issue 5 Pg. 699-711 (Oct 31 2011) ISSN: 1971-4009 [Print] Italy
PMID24059764 (Publication Type: Journal Article)

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