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Tumor-derived hydrogen sulfide, produced by cystathionine-β-synthase, stimulates bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis in colon cancer.

Abstract
The physiological functions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) include vasorelaxation, stimulation of cellular bioenergetics, and promotion of angiogenesis. Analysis of human colon cancer biopsies and patient-matched normal margin mucosa revealed the selective up-regulation of the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in colon cancer, resulting in an increased rate of H2S production. Similarly, colon cancer-derived epithelial cell lines (HCT116, HT-29, LoVo) exhibited selective CBS up-regulation and increased H2S production, compared with the nonmalignant colonic mucosa cells, NCM356. CBS localized to the cytosol, as well as the mitochondrial outer membrane. ShRNA-mediated silencing of CBS or its pharmacological inhibition with aminooxyacetic acid reduced HCT116 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion; reduced endothelial cell migration in tumor/endothelial cell cocultures; and suppressed mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption, ATP turnover, and respiratory reserve capacity), as well as glycolysis. Treatment of nude mice with aminooxyacetic acid attenuated the growth of patient-derived colon cancer xenografts and reduced tumor blood flow. Similarly, CBS silencing of the tumor cells decreased xenograft growth and suppressed neovessel density, suggesting a role for endogenous H2S in tumor angiogenesis. In contrast to CBS, silencing of cystathionine-γ-lyase (the expression of which was unchanged in colon cancer) did not affect tumor growth or bioenergetics. In conclusion, H2S produced from CBS serves to (i) maintain colon cancer cellular bioenergetics, thereby supporting tumor growth and proliferation, and (ii) promote angiogenesis and vasorelaxation, consequently providing the tumor with blood and nutritients. The current findings identify CBS-derived H2S as a tumor growth factor and anticancer drug target.
AuthorsCsaba Szabo, Ciro Coletta, Celia Chao, Katalin Módis, Bartosz Szczesny, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Mark R Hellmich
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A) Vol. 110 Issue 30 Pg. 12474-9 (Jul 23 2013) ISSN: 1091-6490 [Electronic] United States
PMID23836652 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Cystathionine beta-Synthase
  • Hydrogen Sulfide
Topics
  • Animals
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Colonic Neoplasms (blood supply, metabolism, pathology)
  • Cystathionine beta-Synthase (metabolism)
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Female
  • HT29 Cells
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Sulfide (metabolism)
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic

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