HOMEPRODUCTSSERVICESCOMPANYCONTACTFAQResearchDictionaryPharmaMobileSign Up FREE or Login

Microglia/macrophage-derived inflammatory mediators galectin-3 and quinolinic acid are elevated in cerebrospinal fluid from newborn infants after birth asphyxia.

Abstract
Activation of microglia/macrophages is important in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. Based on experimental studies, we identified macrophage/microglia-derived mediators with potential neurotoxic effects after neonatal HI and examined them in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from newborn infants after birth asphyxia. Galectin-3 is a novel inflammatory mediator produced by microglia/macrophages. Galectin-3 is chemotactic for inflammatory cells and activates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase resulting in production and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a tissue-degrading protease expressed by activated microglia in the immature brain after HI. Both galectin-3 and MMP-9 contribute to brain injury in animal models for neonatal HI. Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a neurotoxic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist also produced by activated microglia/macrophages. Galectin-3 and MMP-9 were measured by ELISA and QUIN by mass spectrometry. Asphyxiated infants (n=20) had higher levels of galectin-3 (mean (SEM) 2.64 (0.43) ng/mL) and QUIN (335.42 (58.9) nM) than controls (n=15) (1.36 (0.46) ng/mL and 116.56 (16.46) nM, respectively), p<0.05 and p<0.01. Infants with septic infections (n=10) did not differ from controls. Asphyxiated infants with abnormal outcome had higher levels of galectin-3 (3.96 (0.67) ng/mL) than those with normal outcome (1.76 (0.32) ng/mL), p=0.02, and the difference remained significant in the clinically relevant group of infants with moderate encephalopathy. MMP-9 was detected in few infants with no difference between groups. The potentially neurotoxic macrophage/microglia-derived mediators galectin-3 and QUIN are increased in CSF after birth asphyxia and could serve as markers and may contribute to injury.
AuthorsKarin Sävman, Melvyn P Heyes, Pernilla Svedin, Anna Karlsson
JournalTranslational stroke research (Transl Stroke Res) Vol. 4 Issue 2 Pg. 228-35 (Apr 2013) ISSN: 1868-601X [Electronic] United States
PMID23807898 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Biomarkers
  • Galectin 3
  • galectin-3, human
  • Quinolinic Acid
Topics
  • Asphyxia Neonatorum (cerebrospinal fluid)
  • Biomarkers (cerebrospinal fluid)
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Galectin 3 (cerebrospinal fluid)
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Macrophages (metabolism)
  • Male
  • Microglia (metabolism)
  • Prognosis
  • Quinolinic Acid (cerebrospinal fluid)

Join CureHunter, for free Research Interface BASIC access!

Take advantage of free CureHunter research engine access to explore the best drug and treatment options for any disease. Find out why thousands of doctors, pharma researchers and patient activists around the world use CureHunter every day.
Realize the full power of the drug-disease research network!


Choose Username:
Email:
Password:
Verify Password: