Synergistic and additive effects of chromosomal and plasmid-encoded hemolysins contribute to hemolysis and virulence in Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae.

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae causes infections and fatal disease in marine animals and in humans. Highly hemolytic strains produce damselysin (Dly) and plasmid-encoded HlyA (HlyA(pl)). These hemolysins are encoded by plasmid pPHDD1 and contribute to hemolysis and virulence for fish and mice. In this study, we report that all the hemolytic strains produce a hitherto uncharacterized chromosome-encoded HlyA (HlyAch). Hemolysis was completely abolished in a single hlyAch mutant of a plasmidless strain and in a dly hlyApl hlyAch triple mutant. We found that Dly, HlyA(pl), and HlyAch are needed for full hemolytic values in strains harboring pPHDD1, and these values are the result of the additive effects between HlyApl and HlyAch, on the one hand, and of the synergistic effect of Dly with HlyApl and HlyAch, on the other hand. Interestingly, Dly-producing strains produced synergistic effects with strains lacking Dly production but secreting HlyA, constituting a case of the CAMP (Christie, Atkins, and Munch-Petersen) reaction. Environmental factors such as iron starvation and salt concentration were found to regulate the expression of the three hemolysins. We found that the contributions, in terms of the individual and combined effects, of the three hemolysins to hemolysis and virulence varied depending on the animal species tested. While Dly and HlyApl were found to be main contributors in the virulence for mice, we observed that the contribution of hemolysins to virulence for fish was mainly based on the synergistic effects between Dly and either of the two HlyA hemolysins rather than on their individual effects.
AuthorsAmable J Rivas, Miguel Balado, Manuel L Lemos, Carlos R Osorio
JournalInfection and immunity (Infect Immun) Vol. 81 Issue 9 Pg. 3287-99 (Sep 2013) ISSN: 1098-5522 [Electronic] United States
PMID23798530 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Hemolysin Proteins
  • Sodium Chloride
  • Iron
  • Animals
  • Chromosomes (genetics, metabolism)
  • Escherichia coli (genetics, metabolism)
  • Fish Diseases (genetics, metabolism, microbiology)
  • Fishes (genetics, metabolism, microbiology)
  • Hemolysin Proteins (genetics, metabolism)
  • Hemolysis (genetics)
  • Iron (metabolism)
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Photobacterium (genetics, metabolism, pathogenicity)
  • Plasmids (genetics, metabolism)
  • Sodium Chloride (metabolism)
  • Transcription, Genetic (genetics)
  • Virulence (genetics)

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