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Immune responses to the O-specific polysaccharide antigen in children who received a killed oral cholera vaccine compared to responses following natural cholera infection in Bangladesh.

Abstract
Current oral cholera vaccines induce lower levels of protective efficacy and shorter durations of protection in young children than in adults. Immunity against cholera is serogroup specific, and immune responses to Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the antigen that mediates serogroup-specific responses, are associated with protection against disease. Despite this, responses against V. cholerae O-specific polysaccharide (OSP), a key component of the LPS responsible for specificity, have not been characterized in children. Here, we report a comparison of polysaccharide antibody responses in children from a region in Bangladesh where cholera is endemic, including infants (6 to 23 months, n = 15), young children (24 to 59 months, n = 14), and older children (5 to 15 years, n = 23) who received two doses of a killed oral cholera vaccine 14 days apart. We found that infants and young children receiving the vaccine did not mount an IgG, IgA, or IgM antibody response to V. cholerae OSP or LPS, whereas older children showed significant responses. In comparison to the vaccinees, young children with wild-type V. cholerae O1 Ogawa infection did mount significant antibody responses against OSP and LPS. We also demonstrated that OSP responses correlated with age in vaccinees, but not in cholera patients, reflecting the ability of even young children with wild-type cholera to develop OSP responses. These differences might contribute to the lower efficacy of protection rendered by vaccination than by wild-type disease in young children and suggest that efforts to improve lipopolysaccharide-specific responses might be critical for achieving optimal cholera vaccine efficacy in this younger age group.
AuthorsDaniel T Leung, Taher Uddin, Peng Xu, Amena Aktar, Russell A Johnson, Mohammad Arif Rahman, Mohammad Murshid Alam, Meagan Kelly Bufano, Grace Eckhoff, Ying Wu-Freeman, Yanan Yu, Tania Sultana, Farhana Khanam, Amit Saha, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraf I Khan, Richelle C Charles, Regina C Larocque, Jason B Harris, Stephen B Calderwood, Pavol Kovác, Firdausi Qadri, Edward T Ryan
JournalClinical and vaccine immunology : CVI (Clin Vaccine Immunol) Vol. 20 Issue 6 Pg. 780-8 (Jun 2013) ISSN: 1556-679X [Electronic] United States
PMID23515016 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Cholera Vaccines
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • O Antigens
  • Vaccines, Inactivated
Topics
  • Adolescent
  • Antibodies, Bacterial (blood)
  • Bangladesh
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cholera (immunology)
  • Cholera Vaccines (administration & dosage, immunology)
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin A (blood)
  • Immunoglobulin G (blood)
  • Immunoglobulin M (blood)
  • Infant
  • Male
  • O Antigens (immunology)
  • Vaccines, Inactivated (administration & dosage, immunology)
  • Vibrio cholerae (immunology)

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