Antithrombin reduces inflammation and microcirculatory perfusion failure in closed soft-tissue injury and endotoxemia.

Closed soft-tissue trauma leads to activation of the coagulation cascade and is often complicated by systemic inflammation and infection. Previous investigations have shown potent anti-inflammatory properties of antithrombin. We herein report on the action of antithrombin on skeletal muscle injury in experimental endotoxemia.
By using a pneumatically driven computer-controlled impact device, closed soft-tissue trauma was applied on the left hind limb of pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. Six hours later, endotoxemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. An equivalent volume of physiological saline was given in controls. At the same time point, treatment of animals was started by intravenous injection of antithrombin (250 IU/kg body weight) or vehicle solution. Twenty-four hours after trauma, the extensor digitorum longus muscle was microsurgically exposed and analyzed by means of high-resolution multifluorescence microscopy.
Traumatic soft-tissue injury with additional endotoxemia was characterized by nutritive perfusion failure (functional capillary density: 379±20cm/cm;), tissue hypoxia (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide autofluorescence: 77±4 aU), and enhanced leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction (773±35 cells/mm;). Therapeutic intervention with antithrombin 6 hrs after trauma restored nutritive perfusion and tissue oxygenation (functional capillary density: 469±22cm/cm; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide autofluorescence: 61±5 aU [p < 0.05]) and reduced inflammatory leukocyte adherence (237±20 cells/mm; [p < 0.05]) toward values found in nontraumatized controls (functional capillary density: 573±13cm/cm; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide autofluorescence: 56±2 aU; leukocyte adherence: 204±20 cells/mm;).
Antithrombin ameliorates microcirculatory dysfunction and tissue injury in traumatized animals during endotoxemia. Furthermore, a reduced inflammatory cell response helps to prevent leukocyte-dependent secondary tissue injury.
AuthorsPhilip Gierer, Fabian Laue, Johannes N Hoffmann, Robert Rotter, Thomas Mittlmeier, Georg Gradl, Brigitte Vollmar
JournalCritical care medicine (Crit Care Med) Vol. 41 Issue 3 Pg. 867-73 (Mar 2013) ISSN: 1530-0293 [Electronic] United States
PMID23429296 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Antithrombins
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • lipopolysaccharide, E. coli O26-B6
  • Animals
  • Antithrombins (pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Blood Cell Count
  • Blood Coagulation
  • Cell Death
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Endotoxemia (chemically induced, drug therapy, physiopathology)
  • Hemodynamics
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Inflammation (drug therapy, physiopathology)
  • Lipopolysaccharides (toxicity)
  • Microcirculation (drug effects, physiology)
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Soft Tissue Injuries (drug therapy, physiopathology)

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