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[Drugs used to treat nicotine addiction].

Abstract
Tobacco smoking in Poland is fairly widespread on a large scale. Research suggests that the early twenty-first century, the percentage of female daily smokers aged 20 and above was 26%, and men the same age 43%. In addition, epidemiological studies have shown that smoking was the cause of approximately sixty-nine thousand deaths in Poland (including fifty-seven thousand men and twelve thousand women). It is common ground that cigarette smoking has a negative effect on our body. It represents one of the main and most commonly defined risk factors for many diseases that can be eliminated. Smoking often leads to addiction, and nicotine is an addictive drug. Nicotine addiction is characterized by symptoms such as: "hunger" smoking, difficulty in controlling behavior on smoking or the number of cigarettes smoked, nicotine withdrawal, the occurrence of tolerance, neglect of interests, as well as devoting more time on activities related to smoking, follow-up smoking despite knowledge of its dangers. The most commonly used in Poland, a questionnaire to identify nicotine dependence is a test Fagerstöma. Currently assigned some importance, "the doctor a conversation the patient" and motivating him to stop smoking and maintain abstinence as long as possible. But beyond the "conversation" is also used as an aid to medical treatment for the patient to stop smoking, especially to alleviate withdrawal symptoms. The first attempts of pharmacological help in the effort to weaning from smoking began in the thirties. Were conducted fairly successful, although uncontrolled trials with lobeline, an alkaloid of action similar to nicotine. In Poland, the drugs of first choice in the treatment of nicotine dependence are nicotine replacement therapies (nicotine gum and patches that contain nicotine) and bupropion SR. Quite a popular drugs to help in the fight against addiction are also cytisine and varenicline. The choice of the drug is usually the result of medical experience in the use of a particular product, as well as the presence of contraindications, and preferences as well as individual patient characteristics. Development of knowledge about the neurobiology of addiction in a broader sense, including dependence on nicotine, contributed to a better understanding of the mechanism of smoking and allowed to search for more effective pharmacological treatments. Current research and clinical trials carried out in two main directions - a) the administration of non-nicotine alone, and b) in combination with nicotine replacement therapy. Publication focuses on the characteristics of the preparations for the treatment of nicotine dependence, including for example mechanism of action, method and duration of use, effectiveness in the treatment and side effects that may occur during the use of these substances.
AuthorsIwona Zieleń, Mariola Sliwińska-Mossoń, Halina Milnerowicz
JournalPrzegla̧d lekarski (Przegl Lek) Vol. 69 Issue 10 Pg. 1098-102 ( 2012) ISSN: 0033-2240 [Print] Poland
Vernacular TitlePreparaty stosowane w leczeniu uzaleznienia od nikotyny.
PMID23421099 (Publication Type: English Abstract, Journal Article, Review)
Chemical References
  • Alkaloids
  • Azocines
  • Benzazepines
  • Nicotinic Agonists
  • Quinolizines
  • Quinoxalines
  • Bupropion
  • cytisine
  • Nicotine
  • Varenicline
Topics
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Alkaloids (therapeutic use)
  • Azocines (therapeutic use)
  • Benzazepines (therapeutic use)
  • Bupropion (therapeutic use)
  • Causality
  • Comorbidity
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nicotine (administration & dosage, antagonists & inhibitors)
  • Nicotinic Agonists (therapeutic use)
  • Poland (epidemiology)
  • Quinolizines (therapeutic use)
  • Quinoxalines (therapeutic use)
  • Sex Distribution
  • Smoking (epidemiology, prevention & control)
  • Smoking Cessation (methods)
  • Tobacco Use Disorder (drug therapy, epidemiology)
  • Varenicline
  • Young Adult

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