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Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of a nursing-driven midazolam protocol for the management of procedural pain associated with burn injuries.

Abstract
Burn pain is one of the most excruciating types of pain and can be difficult to manage. Benzodiazepines may be effective in reducing pain by minimizing anxiety associated with dressing changes. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adjunctive midazolam during dressing changes in patients with uncontrolled pain using opioid monotherapy or significant anxiety associated with dressing changes. A retrospective cohort analysis comparing patients who received midazolam during dressing changes with control patients was performed. Each midazolam patient was matched with up to two control patients who did not receive midazolam on the basis of age, sex, TBSA burned, and grafting requirement. The primary endpoint was the oral morphine equivalents required during admission after initiation of midazolam. Thirty-six patients were included for evaluation (14 midazolam and 22 control patients). Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, although patients in the midazolam group had higher pain scores and oral morphine equivalent requirements at baseline. When adjusted for baseline pain, day postburn, age, sex, and grafting status, total oral morphine equivalents and mean pain scores during admission were similar between the groups. One midazolam patient experienced oxygen desaturation with midazolam, but did not require flumazenil for reversal. The use of midazolam during burn dressing changes in patients with poorly controlled pain and/or anxiety was not associated with reduced requirements for oral morphine equivalents or lower pain scores during admission. Further research into the role of benzodiazepines in burn pain management is warranted.
AuthorsKatherine L Bidwell, Sidney F Miller, Rebecca Coffey, Kristin Calvitti, Kyle Porter, Claire V Murphy
JournalJournal of burn care & research : official publication of the American Burn Association (J Burn Care Res) 2013 Jan-Feb Vol. 34 Issue 1 Pg. 176-82 ISSN: 1559-0488 [Electronic] United States
PMID23292586 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Analgesics, Opioid
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives
  • Morphine
  • Midazolam
Topics
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Analgesics, Opioid (therapeutic use)
  • Bandages
  • Burns (nursing)
  • Clinical Protocols
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives (therapeutic use)
  • Male
  • Midazolam (therapeutic use)
  • Middle Aged
  • Morphine (therapeutic use)
  • Pain Management (nursing)
  • Pain Measurement
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome

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